ភាពខុសគ្នារវាងកំណែនានារបស់ "គ្រីស្តុប កូឡុំ"

សេះមកពីអ៊ីរ៉ុបបានអនុញ្ញាតដោយកុលសម្ព័នជនជាតិដើមអាមេរិកនៅតំបន់ដ៏ធំទូលាយនៃអាមេរិកខាងជើង ហើយនាំទៅកាន់ជីវិតរស់រវើក។ អាហារពីអាមេរិកដូចជាដំឡូងបារាំង ប៉េងប៉ោះ នឹងពោត ទៅជាអាហាសំខាន់របស់អ៊ីរ៉ុបនឹងបានជួយបង្កើនការចូលចិត្ត។ ស្រូវសាលីមកពីអ៊ីរ៉ុបនឹងពិភពលោកដ៏ចាស់ផ្លាស់ប្ដូរប្រភពអាហាយ៉ាងរហ័សនៅអាមេរិក។ កាហ្វេមកពីអាព្រិចនឹងស្ករអំពៅមកពីអាស៊ីក្លាយជាកសិដ្ធានលុយដ៏ធំនៅប្រទេសក្នុងអាមេរិកឡាទិន។
ការផ្លាស់ប្ដូរក៏បានបង្កើតជម្ងឺនៅអឌគោលទាំងពីផងដែរ គំនិតដ៏មានប្រសិទ្ធភាពគឺធំធេងនៅអាមេរិក។ ជម្ងឺអុតស្វាយ មកពីពិភពលោកចាស់បានបំផ្លាញប្រជាជនដើមរាប់អាមេរិកលាននាក់ក្នុងចំណោមប្រជាជនទាំងអស់។ ជម្ងឺនេះវាពិសេសលើសពីការគាបសង្កត់ពីពួកអ៊ីរ៉ុបទៅលើអាមេរិក។ គុណប្រយោជន៍ដ៏ធំលើសលប់នៃការផ្លាស់ប្ដូរទៅជាចំណុចចាប់ផ្ដើមនៃអ៊ីរ៉ុប នឹងជាចុងក្រោយគឺការចាប់ផ្ដើមនៃពិភពលោក។ អាមេរិកបានផ្លាសប្ដូរជារៀងរហូតហើយភាពរំភើបញ៉ាប់ញ័រមួយនឹងទំនៀមទំលាប់គហិបតីនៃអរីយធម៌ជនជាតិដើមអាមេរិកគឺមិនបានផ្លាស់ប្ដូរទេ។ តែវាបាត់បង់ហើយវាបដិសេធនឹងពិភពលោកនូវការមិនដឹងនៃជីវៈភាពរស់នៅរបស់ពួកគេ។
 
 
== Popular culture ==
[[File:Elizabeth1SpainSacramentoCA.jpg|thumb|upright|Isabella and Columbus by [[Larkin Mead]] under dome of [[California State Capitol]]<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.vanderkrogt.net/statues/object.php?webpage=CO&record=usca05|title=Columbus Monuments Pages: Sacramento|accessdate =3 January 2010}}</ref>]]
Columbus, an important historical figure, has been depicted in fiction, cinema and television, and in other media and entertainment, such as stage plays, music, cartoons and games.
 
;In games
* Christopher Columbus appears as a Great Explorer in the 2008 strategy video game, ''[[Civilization Revolution]]''.<ref>[http://www.civfanatics.com/civrev/great_people Civilization Revolution: Great People] "CivFanatics" Retrieved on 4 September 2009</ref>
 
;In literature
* In 1889, American author [[Mark Twain]] based the time traveler's trick in ''[[A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court]]'' on Columbus's successful prediction of a lunar eclipse during his fourth voyage to the New World.
* "[[s:Columbus (Coates)|Columbus]]", a poem by [[Florence Earle Coates]], was published in ''[[Harper's Weekly]]'' on 22 October 1892.
* In 1941 the British author [[Rafael Sabatini]] published a novel ''[[Columbus (novel)|Columbus]]'', based on a screenplay he had written for a planned film. The story provided the inspiration for the 1949 film about Columbus.
* In 1958, the Italian playwright [[Dario Fo]] wrote a satirical play about Columbus titled ''Isabella, tre caravelle e un cacciaballe'' (Isabella, three tall ships and a con man). In 1997 Fo was awarded the [[Nobel Prize in Literature]]. The play was translated into English in 1988 by [[Ed Emery]] and is downloadable on the internet.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.geocities.com/dariofoarchive/isabella.html|title=Dario Fo Archives online | accessdate =12 October 2009|archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20091021210924/http://geocities.com/dariofoarchive/isabella.html|archivedate=21 October 2009}}</ref>
* In 1991, author [[Salman Rushdie]] published a fictional representation of Columbus in ''[[The New Yorker]]'', "Christopher Columbus and Queen Isabella of Spain Consummate Their Relationship, Santa Fe, January, 1492".<ref>''The New Yorker'', 17 June 1991, p.&nbsp;32.</ref>
* In ''[[Pastwatch: The Redemption of Christopher Columbus]]'' (1996) science fiction novelist [[Orson Scott Card]] focuses on Columbus's life and activities, but the novel's action also deals with a group of scientists from the future who travel back to the 15th century with the goal of changing the pattern of European contact with the Americas.
* British author [[Stephen Baxter]] includes Columbus's quest for royal sponsorship as a crucial historical event in his 2007 science fiction novel ''Navigator'' (ISBN 978-0-441-01559-7), the third entry in the author's ''Time's Tapestry Series''.
* American novelist [[Steve Berry (novelist)|Steve Berry]]'s 2012 book ''The Columbus Affair'' revolves around the premise that Columbus's voyages held a secret purpose, with clues to an ancient Jewish treasure.
 
;In music
* Christopher Columbus is regularly referred to by singers and musical groups in the [[Rastafari movement]] as an example of a European oppressor. The detractors include [[Burning Spear]] (''Christopher Columbus''), [[Culture (band)|Culture]] (''Capture Rasta''), and [[Peter Tosh]] (''You Can't Blame The Youth'', ''Here Comes The Judge'').
 
;On Screen
* ''[[Christopher Columbus (1949 film)|Christopher Columbus]]'' is a 1949 film starring [[Fredric March]] as Columbus.
* The 1985 TV [[mini-series]], ''[[Christopher Columbus (TV series)|Christopher Columbus]]'', features [[Gabriel Byrne]] as Columbus.
* Columbus was portrayed by [[Gérard Depardieu]] in the 1992 film by [[Ridley Scott]], ''[[1492: Conquest of Paradise]]''. Scott presented Columbus as a forward-thinking idealist, as opposed to the view that he was ruthless and responsible for the misfortune of Native Americans.
* ''[[Carry On Columbus]]'' is a 1992 comedy. [[File:Columbus by Lawrence.jpg|thumb|200px|''Columbus'' by [[Mary Lawrence]]]]
* ''[[Christopher Columbus: The Discovery]]'', is a 1992 biographical film by [[Alexander Salkind]].
* The 42nd episode of ''[[The Sopranos]]'', entitled "[[Christopher (The Sopranos)|Christopher]]" (2002), addresses the controversies surrounding Columbus's legacy from the perspectives of numerous identity group members.
* ''[[Cristóvão Colombo - O Enigma]]'' is a 2007 film by [[Manoel de Oliveira]] in which the main character travels between America and Portugal trying to prove that [[Origin theories of Christopher Columbus|Christopher Columbus was, in fact, Portuguese]].
 
;In sculpture
* ''Isabella and Columbus'' by [[Larkin Mead]], 1874, [[State Capitol (California)|California State Capitol]], [[Sacramento, California]]
* ''Christopher Columbus'', by [[Moses Jacob Ezekiel]], Arrigo Park, Chicago. Illinois, 1891<ref>Bach, Ira and Mary Lackritz Gray, ''A Guide to Chicago's Public Sculpture'', The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1983 p. 226</ref>
* ''[[Drake Fountain]]'', also known as the ''Columbus Monument'' by [[Richard Henry Park]], Chicago, Illinois, 1892<ref>Riedy, James L., ''Chicago Sculpture'', University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1981 pp. 203–204</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus'' by [[Ferdinand Freiherr von Miller|Ferdinand von Miller the Younger]], St. Louis, Missouri, 1884, This work is different from most in that it shows a bearded Columbus. It is believed to be the first bronze statue of Columbus in the United States.<ref>McCue, George, Photographs by David Finn and Amy Binder, ''Sculpture City: St. Louis, Sculpture in the "Gateway to the West"'' Hudson Hills Press NY and Laumeier Sculpture Park, St. Louis, 1988, pp. 43–45</ref>
* Colossal Columbus statue by [[Mary Lawrence]], 1893, at the [[World's Columbian Exposition]], Chicago, Illinois,<ref>''Photographs if the World's Fair: An elaborate Collection of Photographs of the Buildings, Grounds and the Exhibits of the World's Columbian Exposition with a special description of The Famaous Midway Exposition'', The Werner Company, Chicago, 1894, p. 191</ref>
* ''Columbus'' by [[Paul Wayland Bartlett]] ca. 1895 [[Library of Congress]], Washington D.C.<ref>Small, Herbert, ''The Library of Congress: The Architecture and Decoration'', Classical America, WW Norton & Company, New York, 1982, p. 93</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus Memorial'' by Pietro Piai 1904, [[Pueblo, Colorado]]. "Colorado was the first state to make Columbus Day a legal holiday in 1905 and this is reportedly the first monument to Columbus erected in the United States."<ref>{{cite web |url=http://siris-artinventories.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?session=13M64M73230B9.17425&profile=ariall&source=~!siartinventories&view=subscriptionsummary&uri=full=3100001~!333900~!28&ri=2&aspect=Browse&menu=search&ipp=20&spp=20&staffonly=&term=Outdoor+Sculpture+--+Colorado+--+Pueblo&index=OBJEC&uindex=&aspect=Browse&menu=search&ri=2 |title=Christopher Columbus Memorial, (sculpture) |publisher=Siris-artinventories.si.edu |accessdate=15 August 2011}}</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus'', by [[Augusto Rivalta]], Detroit, Michigan, 1910,<ref>Nawrocki, Dennis Alan, ''Art in Detroit Public Places'', Wayne State University Press, Detroit, Michigan, 1980, p. 26</ref>
* [[Columbus Fountain]], by [[Lorado Taft]], 1912, Washington D.C.
* ''Christopher Columbus'', by Virgil Rainer, Chicago, Illinois,<ref>Riedy, James L., ''Chicago Sculpture'', University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois, 1981, pp. 204–205</ref> 1924<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.vanderkrogt.net/statues/object.php?webpage=CO&record=usil14 |title=Chicago – Christopher Columbus |publisher=Vanderkrogt.net |date=21 November 2010 |accessdate=2 February 2012}}</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus'' by Charles Brioschi, assisted by [[Leo Lentelli]], [[St. Paul, Minnesota]], 1931<ref>Harris, Moira A., ''Monumental Minnesota: A Guide to Outdoor Sculpture'', Pogp Press Inc., 1992, p. 17</ref>
* [[Christopher Columbus (Grant Park)|''Christopher Columbus'']] by Charles Brioschi, [[Grant Park (Chicago)]], 1933<ref>Bach, Ira and Mary Lackritz Gray, ''A Guide to Chicago's Public Sculpture'', The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1983, pp. 9–10</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus'', by [[Frank Vittor]], [[Pittsburg, Pennsylvania]], 1958<ref>Evert, Marlyn and Vernon Gay, photographs, ''Discovering Pittsburgh's Sculpture'', University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA, 1983, pp. 182–183</ref>
* ''Christopher Columbus Monument'' by David W. Oswald, [[Columbus, Wisconsin]], 1988<ref>Beajer and Style, ''Public Sculpture in Wisconsin: An Atlas of Outdoor Monuments, Memorials and Masterpieces in the Badger State'', SOS! Wisconsin, Save Outdoor Sculpture and Fine Arts Conservation Services, Madison Wisconsin, 1999, p. 106</ref>
 
;In space
* [[Asteroid]] [[327 Columbia]] is named in his honour.
 
== References ==
=== Footnotes ===
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
=== Bibliography ===
{{refbegin|30em}}
* [[J. M. Cohen|Cohen, J.M.]] (1969) ''The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus: Being His Own Log-Book, Letters and Dispatches with Connecting Narrative Drawn from the Life of the Admiral by His Son Hernando Colon and Others''. London UK: Penguin Classics.
* {{cite book
| first1= Christopher
| last1= Columbus
| first2= Paolo
| last2= Toscanelli
|editor-last= Markham
|editor-first= Clements R.
|title=The Journal of Christopher Columbus (During His First Voyage)
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|url=http://books.google.com.au/books?id=MI7dzFQZHOoC&printsec=frontcover
|year=2010
|origyear= 1893
|isbn= 978-1-108-01284-3
|ref=harv}}
* {{cite book
| first1= Christopher
| last1= Columbus
|title=First Voyage to America: From the log of the "Santa Maria"
|publisher=Dover
|url=http://books.google.com.au/books?id=OxbLxcS5uYgC&printsec=frontcover
|year=1991
|origyear= 1938
|isbn= 0-486-26844-6
|ref=harv
}}
* Cook, Sherburn and Woodrow Borah (1971) ''Essays in Population History, Volume I''. Berkeley CA: University of California Press
* Crosby, A. W. (1987) ''The Columbian Voyages: the Columbian Exchange, and their Historians.'' Washington, DC: American Historical Association.
* {{citation
| title= Columbus then and now: a life reexamined
| first= Miles H.
| last= Davidson
| year=1997
| publisher= University of Oklahoma Press
| location= Norman, OK
| url= http://books.google.com.au/books?id=BR6Ek48GgzEC&printsec=frontcover
| ref=harv
| isbn= 0-8061-2934-4
}}
* Fuson, Robert H. (1992) ''The Log of Christopher Columbus''. International Marine Publishing
* {{Cite book |title=[[A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus]] |author=Irving, Washington |authorlink=Washington Irving |year=1828 |publisher=John Murray (UK), G. & C. Carvill (USA)}}
* Keen, Benjamin (1978) ''The Life of the Admiral Christopher Columbus by his Son Ferdinand,'' Westport CT: Greenwood Press.
* Loewen, James. ''Lies My Teacher Told Me''
* {{Cite book
| title= The Rediscovery of North America
| first= Barry
| last= Lopez
| publisher=University Press of Kentucky
| location= Lexicon, KY
| year= 1990
| ref= harv
| isbn= 0-8131-1742-9
| url= http://books.google.com.au/books?id=wyh9-rhsaQgC&printsec=frontcover}}
* {{Cite book
| title= Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus
| first= Samuel Eliot
| last= Morison
| authorlink= Samuel Eliot Morison
| publisher=Little, Brown and Company
| location= Boston
| year= 1942
| ref= harv
| url= http://books.google.com/books?id=T5x5xjsJtlwC
| isbn= 978-1-4067-5027-0}}
* Morison, Samuel Eliot, ''Christopher Columbus, Mariner'', Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1955
* {{citation
| title= The worlds of Christopher Columbus
| first1= William D.
| last1= Phillips, Jr
| first2= Carla Rahn
| last2= Phillips
| year=1992
| publisher= Cambridge University Press
| location= Cambridge, UK
| url= http://books.google.com.au/books?id=8jhtmzLlX70C&printsec=frontcoverr
| ref=harv
| isbn= 0-521-35097-2
}}
* [[Kirkpatrick Sale|Sale, Kirkpatrick]] ''The Conquest of Paradise: Christopher Columbus and the Columbian Legacy'', Plume, 1991
* Turner, Jack (2004), ''Spice: The History of a Temptation'', New York: Random House.
* {{cite book
| title=La Caída de Cristóbal Colón
| last=Varela
| first= Consuelo
| location=Madrid
| publisher= Marcial Pons
| url=http://books.google.com/books?id=SwtMUtesSDEC&printsec=frontcover&hl=es#v=onepage&q&f=false
| year = 2006
| ref = harv
}}
* Wilford, John Noble (1991), ''The Mysterious History of Columbus: An Exploration of the Man, the Myth, the Legacy'', New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
{{refend}}
 
== External links ==
{{wikisource author|Christopher Columbus}}
{{Commons|Christophorus Columbus|Christopher Columbus}}
{{Wikiquote-inline}}
* {{worldcat id|id=lccn-n78-85478}}
* [http://www.franciscan-archive.org/columbus/opera/excerpts.html Excerpts from the log of Christopher Columbus' first voyage]
* [http://www.bartleby.com/43/2.html The Letter of Columbus to Luis de Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery]
* [http://www.columbusnavigation.com/ Columbus' Navigation]
* [http://columbus.vanderkrogt.net/ Columbus Monuments Pages (overview of monuments for Columbus all over the world)]
* [http://www.bridgepugliausa.it/articolo.asp?id_sez=2&id_cat=37&id_art=3554&lingua=en "But for Columbus There Would Be No America", Tiziano Thomas Dossena, ''Bridgepugliausa.it'', 2012]
{{Authority control|VIAF=17231583|LCCN=n/78/85478}}