|អត្ថបទនេះ ត្រូវការបកប្រែ ទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ |
អត្ថបទនេះត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាផ្សេង ដែលមិនមែនជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ បើសិនជាអត្ថបទទុកសម្រាប់អ្នកអានមកពី សហគមន៍នៃភាសាមួយនេះ វាគួរតែចែកចាយទៅវិគីភីឌាជាភាសានោះ. សូមមើល បញ្ជីនៃគម្រោងវិគីភីឌាទាំងអស់។
សូមមើល ច្រកចូលអត្ថបទនេះ លើក្រុមទំព័រដែលត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ដើម្បីពិភាក្សា ។ ប្រសិនបើ អត្ថបទមិនត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាខ្មែរឡើងវិញទេ ក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរអាទិត្យទៀត អត្ថបទនឹងត្រូវចុះបញ្ជីដើម្បីលុបចោល និង/ឬ ប្ដូរវាទៅកាន់វិគីភីឌាជាភាសាដើមរបស់វាវិញ ។
បើសិនជាលោកអ្នក គ្រាន់តែចង់បិទស្លាកទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែ សូមបញ្ចូល
ទៅខាងក្រោម នៃផ្នែក នៃក្រុមទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ។
ព្រះអង្គារ ជាភពទីបួន ពីព្រះអាទិត្យ និង ភពដែលតូចជាងគេបំផុតទីពីរ ក្នុង ប្រព័ន្ធព្រះអាទិត្យ បន្ទាប់ពីភពព្រះពុធ។ ជនខ្លះហៅព្រះអង្គារថា "ភពក្រហម" ពីព្រោះអុកស៊ីដជាតិដែកដ៏ទូទៅផ្ទៃកំពូលរបស់ភពនេះ ធ្វើឱ្យវាមានរូបរាងពណ៌ក្រហម។ភពអង្គារនិងពណ៌ក្រហមត្រូវមើលឃើញងាយស្រួល។
ទិដ្ឋភាពនៃព្រះអង្គារពី កែវពង្រីកអវកាស Hubble (Hubble Space Telescope)
1.665 861 AU
1.381 497 AU
|Semi-major axis||227,939,100 km
1.523 679 AU
|Orbital period||686.971 day
1.8808 Julian years
|Synodic period||779.96 day
2.135 Julian years
|Average orbital speed||24.077 km/s|
|Inclination||1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun's equator
1.67° to invariable plane
|Longitude of ascending node||49.562°|
|Argument of perihelion||286.537°|
|Equatorial radius||3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a]
|Polar radius||3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a]
|Flattening||0.005 89 ± 0.000 15|
|Mean density||3.934 g/cm³|
|Equatorial surface gravity||3.69 m/s²
|Escape velocity||5.027 km/s|
|1.025 957 day
24.622 96 h
|Equatorial rotation velocity||៨៦៨,២២ km/h (២៤១,១៧ m/s)|
|North pole right ascension||21 h 10 min 44 s
|North pole declination||52.886 50°|
|Albedo||0.15 (geometric) or 0.25 (bond)|
|Apparent magnitude||+1.8 to −2.91|
|Composition||95.72% Carbon dioxide
ភពអង្គារមានព្រះចន្ទតូចៗពីរ moons, ឈ្មោះថា Phobos and Deimos. The planet Mars is made of rock. The ground there is red because of iron oxide (rust) in the rocks and dust. The planet has a small carbon dioxide atmosphere. The temperatures on Mars are colder than on Earth, because it is farther away from the Sun. There is some ice at the north and south poles of Mars, and also frozen carbon dioxide. Mars does not have any water on the surface now, except at the poles, but most scientists think it used to have water.
The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km (31 mi), with a maximum thickness of 125 km (78 mi). Earth's crust, on average 40 km (25 mi), is three times smaller than Mars’ crust based on the sizes of the two planets if they are made equal.
History of Marsកែប្រែ
Some of the first attempts at making a map of Mars were done by Giovanni Schiaparelli. What he saw through his telescope confused him. He saw what he called canali, which he thought were ditches dug for water to pass through. Because of this, people thought that there were other animals and life on Mars, possibly even aliens. Today, we know there cannot be any such aliens. This is because the crafts sent to Mars have found no trace of alien life, and what could have been bacteria were formed at temperatures too high for life to exist. What Giovanni actually saw were the scratches on his telescope lense. This may sound completely absurd but this is really what happened; he spent his whole life studying the marks on his telescope thinking they were alien made water streams.
Life, climate and atmosphere of Marsកែប្រែ
Life on Mars?កែប្រែ
Because Mars is the one of the closest planets to Earth in the Solar System, some people have wondered if there is any kind of life on Mars. Recently, scientists found an old meteorite that had landed near the Earth's South Pole and decided it had come from Mars. In the meteorite they found some very tiny little shapes in the rock which they think might be fossils made by living things. However, they were not sure if it was life or just the natural patterns of the rock. If it were the fossils of a living thing, it was probably some simple plant, and one hundred of them could fit across the width of a single hair.
It is also possible that there are also pieces of the earth on Mars. If a giant meteorite hit the Earth, the force would be strong enough to send pieces of the earth up to space. If a piece of Earth left the atmosphere, it would take along with it lots of cells and bacteria, which are living things.
Mars rotates in 24 hours, and 37 minutes. It rotates on a seasons. However, these seasons are quite different from the seasons on Earth. Winter, spring, fall, and summer would all be freezing cold because it is always freezing on Mars. Mars is too far away from the sun to get enough energy from the sun's light, and the atmosphere is much too thin to keep the warmth inside. The usual temperature on Mars is usually about 81 degrees below zero, and in the summer, the temperature goes up about 32 degrees. Because it is so cold on Mars, carbon dioxide freezes in the winter and makes a lot of dry ice., just like the Earth does, so it has four different
On earth, there is much liquid water, but people have not found any liquid water on Mars. Scientists think that all of the water on Mars is frozen. The summer in Mars is warm enough to get rid of the dry ice, but it is not warm enough to melt the ice that is made of water. Scientists think that the rest of the water on Mars is permanently frozen in the ground (permanently frozen ice is called permafrost, so there's a lot of permafrost in Mars!). However, Opportunity rover has found a rock formation on Mars which suggests that the rocks might have been in salt water once. The Spirit rover also found traces of a mineral called jarosite, which is made in liquid water. So there is some evidence that liquid water did, once, exist on Mars (this means that Mars must have been much warmer long ago).
Even though Mars is really cold, it's actually closer to the Earth's temperature than any other planet in the Solar System. This is the reason lots of people think of sending humans to Mars one day, and dream of building an ecosystem that will protect people.
Mars has a very thin atmosphere with barely any oxygen (it is mostly carbon dioxide). Because there is an atmosphere, however thin it is, the sky does change colors when the sun rises and sets. The dust in the Martian atmosphere make the Martian sunsets have a rather blue color. Mars's atmosphere, of course, is too thin to protect Mars from meteors well, which is why the bottom half of Mars has so many craters. Some craters hit Mars with so much force a few pieces of Mars went flying into space - even into Earth! People have actually found rocks on Earth that have chemicals in them - chemicals that are like the ones in Martian rocks. These rocks also look like they fell really quickly through the atmosphere, so it is reasonable to think they came from Mars.
Mars is home to the highest known mountain in the Solar System, Olympus Mons. Olympus Mons is about 17 miles (or 27 kilometers) high. This is more than three times the height of Earth's tallest mountain, Mount Everest.
Some famous stories were written about this idea. The writers used the name "Martians" for intelligent beings from Mars. In 1898 H. G. Wells wrote The War of the Worlds, a famous novel about Martians attacking the Earth. In 1938, Orson Welles broadcast a radio version of this story in the United States, and many people thought it was really happening and were very afraid. Beginning in 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote several novels about adventures on Mars.
As of February 2011, scientists have not found life on Mars, either living now or extinct. Several space probes without people have gone to Mars to study it. Some have orbited (gone around) the planet, and some have landed on it. There are pictures of the surface of Mars that were sent back to Earth by some of these probes. Some people are interested in sending astronauts to visit Mars. This would be difficult. The astronauts would be in space for many years, and it could be very dangerous because of radiation from the sun.
- Yeomans, Donald K. (2006-07-13). "HORIZONS System". NASA JPL. Retrieved 2007-08-08.—At the site, go to the "web interface" then select "Ephemeris Type: ELEMENTS", "Target Body: Mars" and "Center: Sun".
- "The MeanPlane (Invariable plane) of the Solar System passing through the barycenter". 2009-04-03. Archived from the original on 2009-04-20. Retrieved 2009-04-10. (produced with Solex 10 written by Aldo Vitagliano; see also invariable plane)
- Seidelmann, P. Kenneth (2007). "Report of the IAU/IAG Working Group on cartographic coordinates and rotational elements: 2006". Celestial Mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy. 98 (3): 155–180. doi:10.1007/s10569-007-9072-y. Retrieved 2007-08-28. Unknown parameter
- "Mars: Facts & Figures". NASA. Retrieved 2007-03-06.
- "NASA Mars Page". Volcanology of Mars (Retrieved via the Internet Archive). Retrieved 2009-05-13.
- Dave Jacqué (2003-09-26). "APS X-rays reveal secrets of Mars' core" (in English). Argonne National Laboratory. Retrieved 2006-07-01.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link)
- Exploring Creation with Astronomy by Jeannie K. Fulbright, p.81