ព្រះអង្គារ (អង់គ្លេស: Mars) ជាភពទីបួន ពីព្រះអាទិត្យ និង ភពដែលតូចជាងគេបំផុតទីពីរ ក្នុង ប្រព័ន្ធព្រះអាទិត្យ បន្ទាប់ពីភពព្រះពុធ។ ជនខ្លះហៅព្រះអង្គារថា "ភព​ក្រហម​" [៥] [៦]ពីព្រោះ​អុក​ស៊ី​ដ​ជាតិ​ដែក​ដ៏ទូទៅ​ផ្ទៃកំពូលរបស់ភពនេះ ធ្វើឱ្យ​វាមានរូបរាង​ពណ៌ក្រហម​​។ ភពអង្គារ​មានបរិយាកាស​ស្ដេីង។ ផ្ទៃ​របស់​ភព​នេះ​មានដី​ក្រហូង​ស្រដៀង​ទៅ​នឹង​ព្រះច័ន្ទ​ ព្រមទាំង​ វាលខ្សាច់​ និង​ ប៉ូល​ទឹកកក​ ស្រដៀង​ទៅនឹង​ ភព​ផែនដី​។

ភពអង្គារ
ព្រះអង្គារ
  Astronomical symbol of Mars
The planet Mars
ទិដ្ឋភាពនៃព្រះអង្គារពី កែវពង្រីកអវកាស Hubble (Hubble Space Telescope)
Epoch J2000
Aphelion249,209,300 km
1.665 861 AU
Perihelion 206,669,000 km
1.381 497 AU
Semi-major axis 227,939,100 km
1.523 679 AU
Eccentricity 0.093 315
Orbital period 686.971 day

1.8808 Julian years

668.5991 sols
Synodic period 779.96 day
2.135 Julian years
Average orbital speed 24.077 km/s
Inclination 1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun's equator
1.67° to invariable plane[២]
Longitude of ascending node 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
Satellites
លក្ខណៈទូទៅនៃសណ្ឋានខាងក្រៅ
Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a][៣]
0.533 Earths
Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a][៣]
0.531 Earths
Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15
ផ្ទៃដី 144,798,500 km²
0.284 Earths
មាឌ 1.6318×10១១ km³
0.151 Earths
ម៉ាស់ 6.4185×10២៣ kg
0.107 Earths
Mean density 3.934 g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity3.69 m/s²
0.376 g
Escape velocity5.027 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
1.025 957 day
24.622 96 h[៤]
Equatorial rotation velocity 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s)
Axial tilt 25.19°
North pole right ascension 21 h 10 min 44 s
317.681 43°
North pole declination 52.886 50°
Albedo0.15 (geometric) or 0.25 (bond)
សីតុណ្ហភាពផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ
   Kelvin
   Celsius
minmeanmax
186 K227 K268 K[៤]
−87 °C−46 °C−5 °C
Apparent magnitude +1.8 to −2.91
Angular diameter 3.5—25.1"
បរិយាកាស
សម្ពាធផ្ទៃខាងក្រៅ 0.6–1.0 kPa
Composition 95.72% Carbon dioxide

2.7% Nitrogen
1.6% Argon
0.2% Oxygen
0.07% Carbon monoxide
0.03% Water vapor
0.01% Nitric oxide
2.5 ppm Neon
៣០០ ppb Krypton
១៣០ ppb Formaldehyde
៨០ ppb Xenon
៣០ ppb Ozone

១០ ppb Methane

ថ្ងៃនិងរដូវកាលរបស់ភព​នេះ​ គឺអាចប្រៀបធៀបទៅនឹងផែនដីបានពីព្រោះរយៈពេលវិលជុំ​ ក៏ដូចជាភាពទ្រេត​ នៃអ័ក្សរង្វិល​​របស់​ភព​​ទាំងពីរ​ គឺ​ស្រដៀង​គ្នា​។ នៅលេីភពអង្គារ មាន Olympus Mons​ ដែល​ជា​ភ្នំ​ភ្លើង​ ធំ​ជាង​គេ​ក្នុង​ប្រព័ន្ធ​ព្រះអាទិត្យ​ និង Valles Marineris ដែល​ជា​អន្លង់​ធំ​ជាង​គេ​មួយ​ក្នុង​ប្រព័ន្ធ​ព្រះអាទិត្យ។​ អាង​ Borelis ដែល​នៅ​អឌ្ឍគោល​ខាងជើងគ្របដណ្តប់ ៤០% នៃភពនេះ​ ហើយ​ប្រហែល​ជា​កេីត​ឡើង​ពី​ ការ​ប៉ះទង្គិច​គ្នា​ កាល​ពីរាប់លាន​ឆ្នាំ​មុន។ [៧][៨] ភពព្រះអង្គារមានព្រះចន្ទចំនួនពីរគឺ ផូបូស និង ឌីម៉ូស​ ដែលមានរាងតូចនិងមិនទៀងទាត់។[៩][១០]

ភពអង្គារត្រូវបានរុករកដោយយានអវកាសគ្មានមនុស្សបើកជាច្រើន។ យាន​ ម៉ារីនេី​ទី៤​ (Mariner 4) ជាយានអវកាសដំបូងគេដែលធ្វើដំណើរទៅកាន់ភពព្រះអង្គារ។ វាត្រូវបានបង្ហោះ​ឡេីង​ដោយ​អង្គការណាស​ា (NASA) នៅថ្ងៃទី​២៨ ខែវិច្ឆិកាឆ្នាំ ១៩៦៤​។ វាបានខិតទៅជិតភព​អង្គារ​បំផុត​នៅ​ ថ្ងៃទី​១៥ ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ ១៩៦៥។ ម៉ារីនេី​ទី​៤​ បាន​ចាប់​យក​បាន​ ខ្សែក្រវាត់​វិទ្យុសកម្ម​ខ្សោយ​របស់​ភព​អង្គារ​ ដែល​ស្មេី​នឹង​ ០.១% របស់​ភពផែន​ដី​ ព្រម​ទាំង​ចាប់​យក​បាន​រូបភាព​របស់​ភព​មួយ​ផ្សេង​ទៀត​ក្នុង​ទី​អវកាស​ជ្រៅ។ [១១]បេសកកម្ម​ភពអង្គារទី៣របស់សូវៀតបានទៅដល់ភពអង្គារនៅ ខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ ១៩៧១ ប៉ុន្តែវាបានបាត់បង់ទំនាក់ទំនងជាមួយភពផែនដីបន្ទាប់ពីវាបានចុះចតលេីភពនេះ។[១២] នៅថ្ងៃទី២០ ខែកក្កដា ឆ្នាំ១៩៩៧ យាន វ៉ៃឃីងទី១ (Viking 1) បានចុះចតលើផ្ទៃនៃភពអង្គារ។[១៣] នៅថ្ងៃទី ៤ ខែកក្កដាឆ្នាំ ១៩៩៧ យានអវកាស Mars Pathfinder បានចុះចតនៅលើភពព្រះអង្គារ ហើយនៅថ្ងៃទី៥ ខែកក្កដា វាបានបញ្ចេញ យានរ៉ូបូតរបស់ខ្លួនឈ្មោះ សូជូន័រ (Sojourner) ដែល ជាយានរ៉ូបូតដំបូងគេដែលដំណើរការនៅលើភពព្រះអង្គារ។[១៤] យានអវកាស Mars Express ជាយានអវកាសរបស់ ទីភ្នាក់ងារអវកាសអឺរ៉ុប (ESA) ដំបូងគេដែលបានទៅដល់ភពអង្គារ។ វាបានចូលក្នុងគន្លងភពនេះនៅថ្ងៃទី២៥ ខែធ្នូ ឆ្នាំ២០០៣។[១៥] នៅខែមករាឆ្នាំ ២០០៤ យានរុករកភពព្រះអង្គាររបស់អង្គការណាសាដែលមានឈ្មោះថា Spirit និង Opportunity បានចុះចតនៅលើភពព្រះអង្គារ។ Spirit បានដំណើរការរហូតដល់ថ្ងៃទី ២២ ខែមីនាឆ្នាំ ២០១០ ហើយ Opportunity បានបន្តរហូតដល់ថ្ងៃទី ១០ ខែមិថុនាឆ្នាំ ២០១៨ ។[១៦] ណាសាបានចុះចតយាន Curiosity របស់ខ្លួនកាលពីថ្ងៃទី ៦ ខែសីហាឆ្នាំ ២០១២ ដែលជាផ្នែកមួយនៃបេសកកម្មមន្ទីរពិសោធន៍វិទ្យាសាស្ត្រភពអង្គារ (MSL) ដើម្បីស៊ើបអង្កេតអាកាសធាតុ និងភូគព្ភសាស្ដ្រ របស់ភពអង្គារ។[១៧] នៅថ្ងៃទី ២៤ ខែកញ្ញាឆ្នាំ ២០១៤ អង្គការស្រាវជ្រាវអវកាសឥណ្ឌា (ISRO) បានក្លាយជាទីភ្នាក់ងារអវកាសទី ៤ ដែលបានបញ្ជូនយានអវកាសទៅកាន់ភពអង្គារនៅពេល យានដែលបញ្ជូនទៅដោយបេសកកម្ម Mars Orbiter Mission របស់ខ្លួនបានចូលក្នុងគន្លងរបស់ភពនេះ។[១៨] នៅថ្ងៃទី ៩ ខែកុម្ភៈ ឆ្នាំ២០២១ យានអវកាសរបស់ប្រទេសអារ៉ាប់រួម បានចូលក្នុងគន្លងរបស់ភពព្រះអង្គារដោយជោគជ័យ។[១៩] យានអវកាស ធៀនវេន-១ របស់រដ្ឋបាលអវកាសជាតិចិន (CNSA) បានចូលក្នុងគន្លងរបស់ភពអង្គារនៅថ្ងៃទី១០ ខែកុម្ភៈ ឆ្នាំ២០២១។[២០] រ៉ូបូត Perseverance និងឧទ្ធម្ភាគចក្រ Ingenuity របស់អង្គការណាសានៃសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក បានចុះចតដោយជោគជ័យនៅលើភពព្រះអង្គារនៅថ្ងៃទី ១៨ ខែកុម្ភៈ ឆ្នាំ ២០២១។[២១] Ingenuity បានក្លាយជាយានយន្តដំបូងគេ ដែលហោះហើរនៅភពក្រៅពីភពផែនដីនៅថ្ងៃទី១៩ ខែមេសា ឆ្នាំ២០២១។[២២][២៣] នៅថ្ងៃទី ១៤ ខែឧសភាឆ្នាំ ២០២១ រ៉ូបូត ស៊ូរ៉ុង (Zhurong) របស់រដ្ឋបាលអវកាសជាតិចិនបានចុះចតដោយជោគជ័យលើភពព្រះអង្គារ។[២៤] ស៊ូរ៉ុង ចាប់ផ្ដើមដំណើរការ ថ្ងៃទី ២២ ខែឧសភា ឆ្នាំ ២០២១ ដែលធ្វើឱ្យប្រទេសចិនក្លាយជាប្រទេសទី ២ ដែលដាក់ រ៉ូបូត ដោយជោគជ័យនៅលើភពព្រះអង្គារបន្ទាប់ពីសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក។[២៥]

មានការស៊ើបអង្កេតមួយចំនួនបានធ្វើឡើង ព្រោះគេចង់ដឹងថាភពអង្គារមានលទ្ធភាពទ្រទ្រង់ជីវិតបានឬទេ កាលពីអតីតកាល។ បេសកកម្មមួយចំនួនទៀតកំពុងត្រូវគ្រោងទុក ដូចជា យានរុករក រ៉ូសាលីន ហ្វ្រេងឃ្លីន (Rosalind Franklin rover) របស់ទីភ្នាក់ងារអវកាសអឺរ៉ុប។[២៦][២៧][២៨][២៩] ទឹកដែលជាសារធាតុរាវ មិនអាចមាននៅលើភពអង្គារបានទេ ព្រោះសម្ពាធបរិយាកាសនៃភពនេះខ្សោយ តូចជាង ១% នៃសម្ពាធបរិយាកាសរបស់ភពផែនដី។ [៣០][៣១][៣២] តាមការគណនា ប្រសិនបើកាតឹបទឹកកកនៅតំបន់ប៉ូលទាំងពីរនៃភពអង្គាររលាយនោះ វានឹងមានមាឌគ្រប់គ្រាន់សម្រាប់គ្របដណ្ដប់ផ្ទៃនៃភពទាំងមូលជម្រៅ ១១ ម៉ែត្រ។[៣៣] នៅខែវិច្ឆិកា ឆ្នាំ២០១៦ NASA បានប្រកាសពីការរកឃើញកំណប់ទឹកកកដ៏ធំមួយនៅក្រោមដីនៃភពអង្គារ។[៣៤][៣៥][៣៦]

គេអាចមើលឃើញភពពណ៍ក្រហមនេះយ៉ាងងាយពីភពផែនដី។ វាមាន apparent magnitude ដល់ −២.៩៤ តូចជាង ភពសុក្រ ព្រះចន្ទ និងព្រះអាទិត្យ[៣៧]

រូបរាងកែប្រែ

ភពអង្គារមានអង្កត់ផ្ចិតស្មើនឹង ប្រហែលពាក់កណ្ដាលនៃភពផែនដី។[៣៨] ភពនេះមានមាឌស្មើនឹង ប្រហែល ១៥% នៃមាឌរបស់ភពផែនដី និងម៉ាសស្មើនឹង ប្រហែល ១១% នៃម៉ាសរបស់ភពផែនដី ធ្វើឱ្យភពនេះមានទំនាញស្មើនឹងប្រហែល ៣៨% នៃទំនាញរបស់ភពផែនដី។ ផ្ទៃនៃភពអង្គារមានផ្ទៃពណ៍ក្រហម ព្រោះតែ ដែកIIIអុកស៊ីតច្រែះ[៣៩]

ការប្រៀបធៀប: ភពផែនដី និងភពអង្គារ
Animation (00:40) រូបជីវចលបង្ហាញពីផ្នែកផ្សេងៗនៃភពអង្គារ
Video (01:28) វីដេអូបង្ហាញពីដែនទំនាញរបស់ភពអង្គារ

ផ្នែកខាងក្នុងកែប្រែ

ផ្នែកខាងក្នុងនៃភពអង្គារមានលក្ខណៈស្រដៀងនឹងផ្នែកខាងក្នុងនៃភពផែនដីដែរ។[៤០] គេប៉ាន់ប្រមាណថា ស្នូលនៃភពនេះសម្បូរទៅដោយ ដែក និង នីកែល ព្រមជាមួយនឹង ស៊ុលផួរ ១៦–១៧%។[៤១] ស្នូលរបស់ភពនេះត្រូវព័ទ្ធដោយ ម៉ង់តូ ស៊ីលីកាត ដែលបង្កើតបានជា ផ្លាកតិចតូនិច និង ភ្នំភ្លើងផ្សេងៗ ដែលសព្វថ្ងៃនេះគ្មានសកម្មភាពឡើយ។ ក្រៅពីស៊ីលីកូន និងអុកស៊ីសែន ធាតុដែលសម្បូរជាងគេក្នុងភពព្រះអង្គារ គឺ ដែក ម៉ាញេស្យូម អាលុយមីញ៉ូម កាល់ស្យូម និងប៉ូតាស្យូម។ កម្រាស់មធ្យមរបស់សម្បកភពព្រះអង្គារគឺ ៥០ គ.ម; កម្រាស់ក្រាស់បំផុត ១២៥ គ.ម។[៤២]

ភពអង្គារមានសកម្មភាពរញ្ជួយដីច្រើន ដែលនៅឆ្នាំ២០១៩ យានចុះចត អ៊ីនសៃ (InSight) បានកត់ត្រាសកម្មភាពរញ្ជួយផ្សេងៗ ជាង៤៥០ដង។[៤៣][៤៤] នៅឆ្នាំ២០២១ ដោយយោងទៅតាមការរញ្ជួយដីដែលមានប្រេកង់ទាប១១លើក ដែលចាប់យកបាន ដោយយានចុះចត អ៊ីនសៃ (InSight) គេប៉ាន់ស្មានថាស្នូលនៃភពអង្គារជា សារធាតុរាវ ដែលមានកាំប្រហែល ១៨៣០ ±៤០ km (គ.ម) និងមានសីតុណ្ហភាពប្រហែល ១៩០០–២០០០ K (កែលវិន)។ កាំនៃស្នូលរបស់ភពអង្គារ ស្មើនឹងប្រហែលពាក់កណ្ដាលនៃកាំរបស់ភពនេះទាំងមូល ឬស្មើនឹងប្រហែលពាក់កណ្ដាលនៃស្នូលរបស់ភពផែនដី។

ស្នូលនៃភពអង្គារត្រូវគ្របដណ្ដប់ដោយ ម៉ង់តូ។ ប៉ុន្តែម៉ង់តូរបស់ភពនេះ មិនមានស្រទាប់ម៉ង់តូមួយផ្សេងទៀតនៅខាងក្រោម ដូចរបស់ភពផែនដីឡើយ។ ម៉ង់តូរបស់ភពអង្គារមានសភាពតាន់រហូតដល់ជម្រៅ ៥០០ km(គ.ម)។[៤៥] សម្បកទ្វីបនៃភពអង្គារមានកម្រាស់ជាមធ្យមប្រហែល ២៤–៧២&nbp;km។[៤៦]

ភូគព្ភសាស្ត្រនៃផ្ទៃភពអង្គារកែប្រែ

 
ផែនទីភូគព្ភវិទ្យានៃភពអង្គារ (USGS, 2014)[៤៧]

ផ្ទៃនៃភពអង្គារសម្បូរទៅដោយសារធាតុរ៉ែដែលផ្ទុក ស៊ីលីកូន អុកស៊ីសែន លោហធាតុ និងធាតុផ្សេងៗដែលបង្កើតជាថ្ម។ ផ្ទៃនៃភពនេះភាគច្រើនបង្កើតឡើងដោយ tholeiitic basalt។[៤៨]





ប្រវត្តិនៃភពអង្គារកែប្រែ

Mars has been known since the old times. The Greeks named this planet Ares, after their god of war. The Romans named the planet Mars, after their God.

Some of the first attempts at making a map of Mars were done by Giovanni Schiaparelli. What he saw through his telescope confused him. He saw what he called canali, which he thought were ditches dug for water to pass through. Because of this, people thought that there were other animals and life on Mars, possibly even aliens. Today, we know there cannot be any such aliens. This is because the crafts sent to Mars have found no trace of alien life, and what could have been bacteria were formed at temperatures too high for life to exist. What Giovanni actually saw were the scratches on his telescope lense. This may sound completely absurd but this is really what happened; he spent his whole life studying the marks on his telescope thinking they were alien made water streams.

Life, climate and atmosphere of Marsកែប្រែ

Life on Mars?កែប្រែ

Because Mars is the one of the closest planets to Earth in the Solar System, some people have wondered if there is any kind of life on Mars. Recently, scientists found an old meteorite that had landed near the Earth's South Pole and decided it had come from Mars. In the meteorite they found some very tiny little shapes in the rock which they think might be fossils made by living things. However, they were not sure if it was life or just the natural patterns of the rock. If it were the fossils of a living thing, it was probably some simple plant, and one hundred of them could fit across the width of a single hair.

It is also possible that there are also pieces of the earth on Mars. If a giant meteorite hit the Earth, the force would be strong enough to send pieces of the earth up to space. If a piece of Earth left the atmosphere, it would take along with it lots of cells and bacteria, which are living things.

Martian Rotationកែប្រែ

Mars rotates in 24 hours, and 37 minutes. It rotates on a tilt, just like the Earth does, so it has four different seasons. However, these seasons are quite different from the seasons on Earth. Winter, spring, fall, and summer would all be freezing cold because it is always freezing on Mars. Mars is too far away from the sun to get enough energy from the sun's light, and the atmosphere is much too thin to keep the warmth inside. The usual temperature on Mars is usually about 81 degrees below zero, and in the summer, the temperature goes up about 32 degrees. Because it is so cold on Mars, carbon dioxide freezes in the winter and makes a lot of dry ice.

On earth, there is much liquid water, but people have not found any liquid water on Mars. Scientists think that all of the water on Mars is frozen. The summer in Mars is warm enough to get rid of the dry ice, but it is not warm enough to melt the ice that is made of water. Scientists think that the rest of the water on Mars is permanently frozen in the ground (permanently frozen ice is called permafrost, so there's a lot of permafrost in Mars!). However, Opportunity rover has found a rock formation on Mars which suggests that the rocks might have been in salt water once. The Spirit rover also found traces of a mineral called jarosite, which is made in liquid water. So there is some evidence that liquid water did, once, exist on Mars (this means that Mars must have been much warmer long ago).

Even though Mars is really cold, it's actually closer to the Earth's temperature than any other planet in the Solar System. This is the reason lots of people think of sending humans to Mars one day, and dream of building an artificial ecosystem that will protect people.

Martian Atmosphereកែប្រែ

Mars has a very thin atmosphere with barely any oxygen (it is mostly carbon dioxide). Because there is an atmosphere, however thin it is, the sky does change colors when the sun rises and sets. The dust in the Martian atmosphere make the Martian sunsets have a rather blue color. Mars's atmosphere, of course, is too thin to protect Mars from meteors well, which is why the bottom half of Mars has so many craters. Some craters hit Mars with so much force a few pieces of Mars went flying into space - even into Earth! People have actually found rocks on Earth that have chemicals in them - chemicals that are like the ones in Martian rocks. These rocks also look like they fell really quickly through the atmosphere, so it is reasonable to think they came from Mars.[៤៩]

Martian Geographyកែប្រែ

Mars is home to the highest known mountain in the Solar System, Olympus Mons. Olympus Mons is about 17 miles (or 27 kilometers) high. This is more than three times the height of Earth's tallest mountain, Mount Everest.

Popular cultureកែប្រែ

Some famous stories were written about this idea. The writers used the name "Martians" for intelligent beings from Mars. In 1898 H. G. Wells wrote The War of the Worlds, a famous novel about Martians attacking the Earth. In 1938, Orson Welles broadcast a radio version of this story in the United States, and many people thought it was really happening and were very afraid. Beginning in 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs wrote several novels about adventures on Mars.

Todayកែប្រែ

As of February 2011, scientists have not found life on Mars, either living now or extinct. Several space probes without people have gone to Mars to study it. Some have orbited (gone around) the planet, and some have landed on it. There are pictures of the surface of Mars that were sent back to Earth by some of these probes. Some people are interested in sending astronauts to visit Mars. This would be difficult. The astronauts would be in space for many years, and it could be very dangerous because of radiation from the sun.

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