សត្វឥតឆ្អឹងកងInvertebrates ជា ប្រភេទសត្វ ដែលឥតមាន ឆ្អឹងកង. សត្វឥតឆ្អឹងកងជា សត្វ ដែលមិនរាប់បញ្ចូល សាខារង សត្វឆ្អឹងកង. ឧទាហរណ៍ងាយៗនៃសត្វឥតឆ្អឹងកងមាន insects, worms, clams, crabs, octopus, snails, and starfish. Taxonomically speaking, "invertebrate" is no more than a term of convenience. The vast majority of animal species are invertebrates, since only about 3% of animal species include a vertebral column in their anatomy. In other words all animals except those in the chordate subphylum Vertebrata (fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) are regarded as invertebrates. Furthermore, many individual invertebrate taxons have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata. In fact some of the so-called invertebrata, such as the Chaetognatha and Hemichordata, are more closely related to the Chordata than to other invertebrate phyla. The division of the entire Kingdom Animalia into vertebrates (about 65000 species in part of one phylum) and invertebrates certainly is convenient in some practical contexts, but to put it into taxonomic perspective, it is roughly on the same scale as dividing the animal kingdom into, for example, gastropods (perhaps 60000 species in part of one phylum) and non-gastropods; worthwhile only in certain constrained contexts.
- Encarta Reference Library Home Premium 2005 DVD. Article – Invertebrate.
- Richards, O. W.; Davies, R.G. (1977). Imms' General Textbook of Entomology: Volume 1: Structure, Physiology and Development Volume 2: Classification and Biology. Berlin: Springer. ISBN 0-412-61390-5.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)