ភាពខុសគ្នារវាងកំណែនានារបស់ "ផ្លាយ អាស់"

 
===ស៊ីម៉ង់ត៍​ផតលែន===
Owing to its [[pozzolan]]ic properties, fly ash is used as a replacement for some of the [[Portland cement]] content of [[concrete]].<ref name="Scott, 2007, Evolution" >{{cite journal
| last =Scott | first =Allan N . | coauthors = Thomas, Michael D. A.
| title =Evaluation of Fly Ash From Co-Combustion of Coal and Petroleum Coke for Use in Concrete
| journal =ACI Materials Journal
| volume =104 | issue =1 | pages =62–70
| publisher =American Concrete Institute
|date=January/February 2007
}}</ref> The use of fly ash as a pozzolanic ingredient was recognized as early as 1914, although the earliest noteworthy study of its use was in 1937.<ref name="NCHRP, 1986" >{{cite journal
| last = Halstead | first = W. | title = Use of Fly Ash in Concrete
| journal = National Cooperative Highway Research Project | volume = 127
|date=October 1986}}</ref> Before its use was lost to the Dark Ages, Roman structures such as [[aqueduct]]s or the [[Pantheon, Rome|Pantheon]] in Rome used volcanic ash (which possesses similar properties to fly ash) as pozzolan in their concrete.<ref name="Moore, Pantheon" >{{cite book
| last =Moore | first =David
|title =The Roman [[Pantheon, Rome|Pantheon]]: The Triumph of Concrete
}}</ref> As pozzolan greatly improves the strength and durability of concrete, the use of ash is a key factor in their preservation.
 
Use of fly ash as a partial replacement for Portland cement is generally limited to Class F fly ashes. It can replace up to 30% by mass of Portland cement, and can add to the concrete’s final strength and increase its chemical resistance and durability. Recently concrete mix design for partial cement replacement with High Volume Fly Ash (50 % cement replacement) has been developed. For Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC)[used in dam construction] replacement values of 70% have been achieved with processed fly ash at the Ghatghar Dam project in Maharashtra, India. Due to the spherical shape of fly ash particles, it can also increase workability of cement while reducing water demand.<ref name="faffhe" >{{cite web
| author = U.S. Federal Highway Administration | authorlink = Federal Highway Administration
| title = Fly Ash Facts for Highway Engineers
| url = http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/fafacts.pdf
|format=PDF
}}</ref> The replacement of Portland cement with fly ash is considered by its promoters to reduce the [[greenhouse gas]] "footprint" of concrete, as the production of one ton of Portland cement produces approximately one ton of [[carbon dioxide|CO<sub>2</sub>]] as compared to zero CO<sub>2</sub> being produced using existing fly ash. New fly ash production, i.e., the burning of coal, produces approximately twenty to thirty tons of CO<sub>2</sub> per ton of fly ash. Since the worldwide production of Portland cement is expected to reach nearly 2 billion tons by 2010, replacement of any large portion of this cement by fly ash could significantly reduce carbon emissions associated with construction, as long as the comparison takes the production of fly ash as a given.
 
===សំនង់​ជើង​ទេរទំនប់​===
===ការ​បង្កើន​គុណភាព​ដី===
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