The Killing Fields (ខ្មែរ ៖ វាលពិឃាត viel pi-kʰiet) are a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Cambodian Civil War (1970–1975).
Analysis of 20,000 mass grave sites by the DC-Cam Mapping Program and Yale University indicate at least 1,386,734 victims of execution. Estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.7 to 2.5 million out of a 1975 population of roughly 8 million. In 1979, communist Vietnam invaded Democratic Kampuchea and toppled the Khmer Rouge regime.
Cambodian journalist Dith Pran coined the term "killing fields" after his escape from the regime. A 1984 film, The Killing Fields, tells the story of Dith Pran, played by another Cambodian survivor Haing S. Ngor, and his journey to escape the death camps.
របបខ្មែរក្រហមបានចាប់ខ្លួន និងប្រហារជីវិតរាល់ជនណាដែលគេមានការសង្ស័យថាមានទំនាក់ទំនងជាមួយរដ្ឋាភិបាលរបបចាស់ ឬជាមួួយរដ្ឋាភិបាលបរទេស ក៏ដូចជាសាស្ត្រាចារ្យ និងបញ្ញាវ័ន្ត។ ជនជាតិវៀតណាម ជនជាតិថៃ ជនជាតិចិន ជនជាតិចាម ខ្មែរកាន់សាសនាគ្រិស្ត និងព្រះសង្ឃក្នុងព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនា គឺជាគោលដៅក្នុងការចាប់ខ្លួន។ ជាលទ្ធផល ប៉ុលពតពេលខ្លះត្រូវគេពណ៌នាថា«ហ៊ីត្លែរនៃកម្ពុជា» និង «បិសាចប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍?»។ លោក Martin Shaw បានពណ៌នាអំពើប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍នៅកម្ពុជាជា«អំពើប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍ដ៏ពិតប្រាកដក្នុងសម័យសង្គ្រាមត្រជាក់»។
Ben Kiernan estimates that about 1.7 million people were killed. Researcher Craig Etcheson of the Documentation Center of Cambodia suggests that the death toll was between 2 and 2.5 million, with a "most likely" figure of 2.2 million. After 5 years of researching some 20,000 grave sites, he concludes that, "these mass graves contain the remains of 1,386,734 victims of execution." A UN investigation reported 2–3 million dead, while UNICEF estimated 3 million had been killed. Demographic analysis by Patrick Heuveline suggests that between 1.17 and 3.42 million Cambodians were killed, while Marek Sliwinski suggests that 1.8 million is a conservative figure. Even the Khmer Rouge acknowledged that 2 million had been killed—though they attributed those deaths to a subsequent Vietnamese invasion. By late 1979, UN and Red Cross officials were warning that another 2.25 million Cambodians faced death by starvation due to “the near destruction of Cambodian society under the regime of ousted Prime Minister Pol Pot,” who were saved by international aid after the Vietnamese invasion.
Cambodia's ethnic minorities constituted 15 percent of the population in pre-Khmer Rouge era. Of the 400,000 Vietnamese who lived in Cambodia before 1975, some 150–300,000 were expelled by the previous Lon Nol regime. When Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge came to power, there remained about 100–250,000 Vietnamese in the country. Almost all of them were repatriated by December 1975.
The Chinese community (about 425,000 people in 1975) was reduced to 200,000 during the next four years. In the Khmer Rouge's Standing Committee, four members were of Chinese ancestry, two Vietnamese, and two Khmers. Some observers argue that this mixed composition makes it difficult to argue that there was an intent to kill off minorities. R.J. Rummel, an analyst of political killings, argues that there was a clear genocidal intent:
One estimate is that out of 40,000 to 60,000 monks, only between 800 and 1,000 survived to carry on their religion. We do know that of 2,680 monks in eight monasteries, a mere seventy were alive as of 1979. As for the Buddhist temples that populated the landscape of Cambodia, the Khmer Rouge destroyed 95 percent of them, and turned the remaining few into warehouses or allocated them for some other degrading use. Amazingly, in the very short span of a year or so, the small gang of Khmer Rouge wiped out the center of Cambodian culture, its spiritual incarnation, its institutions....As part of a planned genocide campaign, the Khmer Rouge sought out and killed other minorities, such as the Moslem Cham. In the district of Kompong Xiem, for example, they demolished five Cham hamlets and reportedly massacred 20,000 that lived there; in the district of Koong Neas only four Cham apparently survived out of some 20,000.
វាលពិឃាតដែលឈ្មោះបោះសំឡេងជាងគេគឺវាលពិឃាតជើងឯក។ សព្វថ្ងៃនេះទីកន្លែងជាទីបែបពុទ្ធសាសនាសម្រាប់ជាការចងចាំដល់ជនរងគ្រោះ និងសារមន្ទីរទួលស្លែងជាសារមន្ទីរប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍។ សួនរំលឹកការចងចាំនៅជើងឯកត្រូវបានសាងសង់ឡើងនៅជុំវិញរណ្តៅកប់សពរួមជាច្រើនដែលផ្ទុកសពមនុស្សរាប់ពាន់នាក់ ដែលភាគច្រើនត្រូវផ្ទេរចេញមន្ទីរស-២១នៅឯភ្នំពេញ។ ការសម្តែងការគោរពដ៏ជ្រាលជ្រៅបានឧទ្ទិសជូនជនរងគ្រោះតាមស្លាកសញ្ញា និងផ្នែកជាច្រើនទឿតនៅផ្ទៃនៃសារមន្ទីរ។ រណ្តៅកប់សពរួមមួយចំនួនធំអាចមើលឃើញនៅលើដី និងមួយចំនួនទៀតមិនទាន់ត្រូវគាស់កកាយ។ ជាទូទៅ ឆ្អឹងនិងសម្លៀកបំពាក់ត្រូវបានកប់នៅជម្រៅរាក់???The best known monument of the Killing Fields is at the village of Choeung Ek. Today, it is the site of a Buddhist memorial to the victims, and Tuol Sleng has a museum commemorating the genocide. The memorial park at Choeung Ek has been built around the mass graves of many thousands of victims, most of whom were executed after they had been transported from the S-21 Prison in Phnom Penh. The utmost respect is given to the victims of the massacres through signs and tribute sections throughout the park. Many dozens of mass graves are visible above ground, many which have not been excavated yet. Commonly, bones and clothing surface after heavy rainfalls due to the large number of bodies still buried in shallow mass graves. It is not uncommon to run across the bones or teeth of the victims scattered on the surface as one tours the memorial park. If these are found, visitors are asked to notify a memorial park officer or guide.
A survivor of the genocide, Dara Duong, founded The Killing Fields Museum in Seattle, Washington, USA.
- Alive in the Killing Fields (book)
- Cambodian Civil War
- Chankiri Tree (Killing Tree)
- Enemies of the People (film)
- First Indochina War
- First They Killed My Father by Loung Ung
- Khmer Rouge rule of Cambodia
- The Killing Fields (film)
- Son Sen
- Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum
- Khmer Warrior (book)
- Documentation Center of Cambodia
- Yale Cambodian Genocide Program
- "'Killing Fields' journalist dies"។ BBC News។ March 30, 2008។ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/7321560.stm។ បានយកមក May 25, 2010។
- William Branigin, Architect of Genocide Was Unrepentant to the End The Washington Post, April 17, 1998
- Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution by Martin Shaw, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp 141, ISBN 978-0-521-59730-2
- The CGP, 1994–2008 Cambodian Genocide Program, Yale University
- Sharp, Bruce (April 1, 2005)។ "Counting Hell: The Death Toll of the Khmer Rouge Regime in Cambodia"។ http://www.mekong.net/cambodia/deaths.htm។ បានយកមក July 5, 2006។
- William Shawcross, The Quality of Mercy: Cambodia, Holocaust, and Modern Conscience (Touchstone, 1985), p115-6
- Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality in Cambodia." In Forced Migration and Mortality, eds. Holly E. Reed and Charles B. Keely. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
- Marek Sliwinski, Le Génocide Khmer Rouge: Une Analyse Démographique (L'Harmattan, 1995).
- Khieu Samphan, Interview, Time, March 10, 1980
- New York Times, August 8, 1979.
- "CAMBODIA: Help for the Auschwitz of Asia"។ Time។ November 5, 1979។ បានដាក់ទុកឯកសារ ពី នៅថ្ងៃ 2012-09-13។ https://archive.is/1AGo។
- Totten, Samuel; William S. Parsons, Israel W. Charny (2004)។ Century of genocide:។ Routledge។ ទំ. 345។ ល.ស.ប.អ. 0-415-94430-9។ http://books.google.com/books?id=5Ef8Hrx8Cd0C&pg=PA345&dq។
- United Nations' General Assembly Resolution 260 (Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide) requires that a, “national, ethical, racial or religious group” be specifically targeted to be considered Genocide. The Khmer Rouge did not meet this legal definition since all people, including the Khmer Rouge themselves, were equally targeted. Therefore the United Nations and the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) has, as of December 2009, only charged two individuals with "Genocide," for the targeting of the Vietnamese and ethnic Cham Muslims.(See AP) Instead, most have been charged with war crimes, crimes against humanity, grave breaches of the Geneva Convention, homicide, torture and religious persecution.(see)(see also)
- The Killing Fields Museum – A museum based in Seattle, USA dedicated to preserving the history of the Killing Fields.
- Cambodia Tribunal Monitor
- Photographs from S-21 – Photographs from Tuol Sleng (S-21)
- Denise Affonço: To The End Of Hell: One Woman's Struggle to Survive Cambodia's Khmer Rouge. (With Introduction by Jon Swain.) ISBN 978-0-9555729-5-1.
- Dark memories of Cambodia's killing spree BBC News commemorating the 30th anniversary of the Khmer Rouge's demise