Ernesto "Che" Guevara (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃe ɣeˈβaɾa]; June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as el Che or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, physician, author, guerrilla leader, diplomat, and military theorist. A major figure of the Cuban Revolution, his stylized visage has become a ubiquitous countercultural symbol of rebellion and global insignia within popular culture.
មិថុនា 14, 1928
រ៉ូសារីអូ សន្តាផ្វេ អាហ្សង់ទីន
តុលា 9, 1967ប្រហារជីវិត) (បានអាយុ 39) (|
ឡាអ៊ីហ្គេរ៉ា បាយ៉េលហ្គ្រាន់ដេ បូលីវី
|អាជីព||ពេទ្យរូបសាស្ត្រ អ្នកនិពន្ធ អ្នករដ្ឋការ|
|អង្គការ||ចលនា ទី២៦ កក្កដា, គណបក្សសាមគ្គីបដិវត្តន៍សង្គមនិយមគុយបា កងទ័ពរំដោះជាតិ (បូលីវី)|
អាឡីដា-ម៉ាឆ (១៩៥៩–១៩៦៧ មរណភាពរបស់លោក)
|កូន||ហ៊ីលឡា (១៩៥៦–១៩៩៥), អាឡីដា (ក. ១៩៦០), កាមី-ល (ក. ១៩៦២), សេលីអា (ក. ១៩៦៣), អេរ្ណិសស្តូ (ក. ១៩៦៥)|
លេលីអា ឌែ ឡា ស៊ែរ៉្ណា
As a young medical student, Guevara traveled throughout South America and was radicalized by the poverty, hunger, and disease he witnessed. His burgeoning desire to help overturn what he saw as the capitalist exploitation of Latin America by the United States prompted his involvement in Guatemala's social reforms under President Jacobo Árbenz, whose eventual CIA-assisted overthrow at the behest of the United Fruit Company solidified Guevara's political ideology. Later, while living in Mexico City, he met Raúl and Fidel Castro, joined their 26th of July Movement, and sailed to Cuba aboard the yacht, Granma, with the intention of overthrowing US-backed Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista. Guevara soon rose to prominence among the insurgents, was promoted to second-in-command, and played a pivotal role in the victorious two-year guerrilla campaign that deposed the Batista regime.
Following the Cuban Revolution, Guevara performed a number of key roles in the new government. These included reviewing the appeals and firing squads for those convicted as war criminals during the revolutionary tribunals, instituting agrarian land reform as minister of industries, helping spearhead a successful nationwide literacy campaign, serving as both national bank president and instructional director for Cuba’s armed forces, and traversing the globe as a diplomat on behalf of Cuban socialism. Such positions also allowed him to play a central role in training the militia forces who repelled the Bay of Pigs Invasion and bringing the Soviet nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to Cuba which precipitated the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Additionally, he was a prolific writer and diarist, composing a seminal manual on guerrilla warfare, along with a best-selling memoir about his youthful continental motorcycle journey. His experiences and studying of Marxism–Leninism led him to posit that the Third World's underdevelopment and dependence was an intrinsic result of imperialism, neocolonialism, and monopoly capitalism, with the only remedy being proletarian internationalism and world revolution. Guevara left Cuba in 1965 to foment revolution abroad, first unsuccessfully in Congo-Kinshasa and later in Bolivia, where he was captured by CIA-assisted Bolivian forces and summarily executed.
Guevara remains both a revered and reviled historical figure, polarized in the collective imagination in a multitude of biographies, memoirs, essays, documentaries, songs, and films. As a result of his perceived martyrdom, poetic invocations for class struggle, and desire to create the consciousness of a "new man" driven by moral rather than material incentives, he has evolved into a quintessential icon of various leftist-inspired movements. Time magazine named him one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century, while an Alberto Korda photograph of him entitled Guerrillero Heroico (shown), was cited by the Maryland Institute College of Art as "the most famous photograph in the world".
- The date of birth recorded on his birth certificate was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year. Constenla alleges that she was told by Che's mother, Celia de la Serna, that she was already pregnant when she and Ernesto Guevara Lynch were married and that the date on the birth certificate of their son was forged to make it appear that he was born a month later than the actual date to avoid scandal. (Anderson 1997, pp. 3, 769.)
- Partido Unido de la Revolución Socialista de Cuba, aka PURSC.
- The Spark That Does Not Die by Michael Löwy, International Viewpoint, July 1997
- McLaren 2000, p. 78.
- Embodiment and Agency, by Sue Campbell & Letitia Meynell, Penn State Press, 2009, ISBN 0-271-03522-6, p. 243
- Unknown, Autor. "Guevara, Che". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 30 September 2001.
- The various sound clips on this site of international Spanish speakers: Forvo.com pronounce the G in the name "Guevara" as [ɡ] or [ɣ] depending on how carefully they enunciate. When the names are spoken together, it is [ɣ]; when enunciated separately, [ɡ].
- Casey 2009, p. 128.
- On Revolutionary Medicine Speech by Che Guevara to the Cuban Militia on August 19, 1960. "Because of the circumstances in which I traveled, first as a student and later as a doctor, I came into close contact with poverty, hunger and disease; with the inability to treat a child because of lack of money; with the stupefaction provoked by the continual hunger and punishment, to the point that a father can accept the loss of a son as an unimportant accident, as occurs often in the downtrodden classes of our American homeland. And I began to realize at that time that there were things that were almost as important to me as becoming a famous or making a significant contribution to medical science: I wanted to help those people."
- Beaubien, NPR Audio Report, 2009, 00:09–00:13.
- "Castro's Brain" 1960.
- Taibo 1999, p. 267.
- Kellner 1989, pp. 69–70.
- Anderson 1997, pp. 526–530.
- "On Development" Speech delivered by Che Guevara at the plenary session of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development in Geneva, Switzerland on March 25, 1964. "The inflow of capital from the developed countries is the prerequisite for the establishment of economic dependence. This inflow takes various forms: loans granted on onerous terms; investments that place a given country in the power of the investors; almost total technological subordination of the dependent country to the developed country; control of a country's foreign trade by the big international monopolies; and in extreme cases, the use of force as an economic weapon in support of the other forms of exploitation."
- At the Afro-Asian Conference in Algeria A speech by Che Guevara to the Second Economic Seminar of Afro-Asian Solidarity in Algiers, Algeria on February 24, 1965."The struggle against imperialism, for liberation from colonial or neocolonial shackles, which is being carried out by means of political weapons, arms, or a combination of the two, is not separate from the struggle against backwardness and poverty. Both are stages on the same road leading toward the creation of a new society of justice and plenty." ... "Ever since monopoly capital took over the world, it has kept the greater part of humanity in poverty, dividing all the profits among the group of the most powerful countries. The standard of living in those countries is based on the extreme poverty of our countries. To raise the living standards of the underdeveloped nations, therefore, we must fight against imperialism." ... "The practice of proletarian internationalism is not only a duty for the peoples struggling for a better future, it is also an inescapable necessity."
- Ryan 1998, p. 4.
- Dorfman 1999.
- Maryland Institute of Art, referenced at BBC News May 26, 2001.