|អត្ថបទនេះ ត្រូវការបកប្រែ ទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ |
អត្ថបទនេះត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាផ្សេង ដែលមិនមែនជាភាសាខ្មែរ។ បើសិនជាអត្ថបទទុកសម្រាប់អ្នកអានមកពី សហគមន៍នៃភាសាមួយនេះ វាគួរតែចែកចាយទៅវិគីភីឌាជាភាសានោះ. សូមមើល បញ្ជីនៃគម្រោងវិគីភីឌាទាំងអស់។
សូមមើល ច្រកចូលអត្ថបទនេះ លើក្រុមទំព័រដែលត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ដើម្បីពិភាក្សា ។ ប្រសិនបើ អត្ថបទមិនត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាខ្មែរឡើងវិញទេ ក្នុងរយៈពេលពីរអាទិត្យទៀត អត្ថបទនឹងត្រូវចុះបញ្ជីដើម្បីលុបចោល និង/ឬ ប្ដូរវាទៅកាន់វិគីភីឌាជាភាសាដើមរបស់វាវិញ ។
បើសិនជាលោកអ្នក គ្រាន់តែចង់បិទស្លាកទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែ សូមបញ្ចូល
ទៅខាងក្រោម នៃផ្នែក នៃក្រុមទំព័រនេះត្រូវការបំណកប្រែទៅជាភាសាខ្មែរ ។
បាលី (Pāḷi)គឺជាភាសាឥណ្ឌូ-អារ្យមជ្ឈិមមួយ (ឬ ប្រាក្រឹត) នៃឧបទ្វីបឥណ្ឌា ។ បាលីជាភាសាបុរាណមួយបែប ដែលមនុស្សជំនាន់ដើមនិយាយទាក់ទងគ្នា ។ មនុស្សខ្លះនិយមហៅភាសាបាលីថាជាភាសារបស់ព្រះពុទ្ធ។ សព្វថ្ងៃ គេឃើញមានភាសានេះនៅក្នុងក្បួនច្បាប់មួយចំនួនធំ ដូចជាក្នុងព្រះពុទ្ធវចនៈ (ព្រះត្រៃបិដក) ជាដើម និង មានពុទ្ធបរិស័ទខាងនិកាយថេរវាទយកទៅប្រើតាមប្រទេសរៀងខ្លួន ។
|ដើមកំណើតនៅ||កម្ពុជា, បង់ក្លាដេស, ឥណ្ឌា, ឡាវ, ភូមា, នេប៉ាល់, ស្រីលង្កា, ថៃ, វៀតណាម|
|Extinct||No native speakers, used as a literary and liturgical language only|
|ប្រព័ន្ធសរសេរ||Brāhmī and derived scripts and Latin alphabet (refer to article)|
- ១ ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយ
- ២ Lexicon
- ៣ Emic views of Pali
- ៤ សូរវិទ្យា
- ៥ រូបសព្ទ
- ៦ ការវិភាគអត្ថបទក្នុងភាសាបាលី
- ៧ បាលី និងអឌ្ឍមគធី
- ៨ បាលី និងសំស្រ្កឹត
- ៩ សំណេរបាលី
- ១០ ឯកសារយោង
- ១១ អានបន្ថែម
- ១២ តំណភ្ជាប់ខាងក្រៅ
ដើមកំណើត និង ការប្រែក្លាយកែប្រែ
ពាក្យថា បាលី បានសេចក្តីថា ជួរ ឬដងព្រៃ ,ស្ពាន , របៀប , ភាសាដ៏មានរបៀបមួយ ។ This name for the language seems to have its origins in commentarial traditions, wherein the Pali (in the sense of the line of original text quoted) was distinguished from the commentary or vernacular translation that followed it in the manuscript. As such, the name of the language has caused some debate among scholars of all ages; the spelling of the name also varies, being found with both long "ā" [aː] and short "a" [a], and also with either a retroflex [a] or non-retroflex [l] "l" sound, as in the ISO 15919/ALA-LC rendering, Pāli. To this day, there is no single, standard spelling of the term; all four spellings can be found in textbooks. R.C. Childers translates the word as "series" and states that the language "bears the epithet in consequence of the perfection of its grammatical structure".
Pali is a literary language of the Prakrit language family. When the canonical texts were written down in Sri Lanka in the first century BCE, Pali stood close to a living language; this is not the case for the commentaries. Despite excellent scholarship on this problem, there is persistent confusion as to the relation of Pāli to the vernacular spoken in the ancient kingdom of Magadha, which was located around modern-day Bihār.
Pali as a Middle Indo-Aryan language is different from Sanskrit not so much with regard to the time of its origin as to its dialectal base, since a number of its morphological and lexical features betray the fact that it is not a direct continuation of Rigvedic Vedic Sanskrit; rather it descends from a dialect (or a number of dialects) that was, despite many similarities, different from Rigvedic.
នៅក្នុងប្រភពនៃ ថេរវាទ ត្រូវបានស្គាល់ភាសាបាលីជាភាសា មគធៈ (Magadha). ភាសានេះត្រូវបានសរសេរនៅក្នុងព្រះត្រៃបិដក, អដ្ឋកថា ជាដើម, ហើយនឹងត្រូវបានព្យាយាមប្រើប្រាស់ដោយពុទ្ធសាសនិកជនជាច្រើន ដើម្បីងាយស្រួលក្នុងការប្រាស្រ័យទាក់ទងនឹងសាសន៍ដទៃដែលកាន់ព្រះពុទ្ធសាសនាដូចគ្នា ។ ព្រះពុទ្ធបង្រៀន, ប្រទានឱវាទ ដល់ជនទាំងឡាយជាភាសាមគធៈ ប៉ុន្តែទីស្ថានសំខាន់ៗ ៤ កន្លែងរបស់ព្រះអង្គ ស្ថិតនៅក្រៅតំបន់នេះទាំងអស់ ។ វាប្រហែលជាភាសាបាលីជាគ្រាមភាសាដែលធ្វើអោយមានការងាយស្រួលក្នុងការពន្យល់ និង ងាយយល់ពីសំណាក់ប្រជាជន ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម ។ គេពុំទាន់ឃើញមានភស្តុតាងណាមួយដែលអាចបញ្ជាក់ពីភាសាដទៃរបស់ពួក ឥណ្ឌូអារ្យមជ្ឈិម ដែលប្រសើរជាងភាសាបាលីទេ ។ គេឃើញមានភាសាបាលីនៅក្នុងសិលាចារឹកជាច្រើនរបស់ព្រះបាទអសោកនៅ Girnar ផ្នែកខាងលិចប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា, និង c នៅខាងកើត ។ Similarities to the Western inscription may be misleading, because the inscription suggests that the Ashokan scribe may not have translated the material he omreceived from មគធៈ into the vernacular of the people there. Whatever the relationship of the Buddha's speech to Pali, the Canon was eventually transcribed and preserved entirely in it, while the commentarial tradition that accompanied it (according to the information provided by ព្រះពុទ្ធឃោសៈ) was translated into olkភាសាសីហឡៈ and preserved local languages for several generations.
In Sri Lanka, Pali is thought to have entered into a period of decline ending around the 4th or 5th century (as Sanskrit rose in prominence, and simultaneously, as Buddhism's adherents became a smaller portion of the subcontinent), but ultimately survived. The work of Buddhaghosa was largely responsible for its reemergence as an important scholarly language in Buddhist thought. The Visuddhimagga and the other commentaries that Buddhaghosa compiled codified and condensed the Sinhalese commentarial tradition that had been preserved and expanded in Sri Lanka since the 3rd century BCE.
T.W. Rhys Davids in his book Buddhist India, and Wilhelm Geiger in his book Pali Literature and Language, suggested that Pali may have originated as a form of lingua franca or common language of culture among people who used differing dialects in North India, used at the time of the Buddha and employed by him. Another scholar states that at that time it was "a refined and elegant vernacular of all Aryan-speaking people." Modern scholarship has not arrived at a consensus on the issue; there are a variety of conflicting theories with supporters and detractors. After the death of the Buddha, Pali may have evolved among Buddhists out of the language of the Buddha as a new artificial language. R.C. Childers, who held to the theory that Pali was Old Magadhi, wrote: "Had Gautama never preached, it is unlikely that Magadhese would have been distinguished from the many other vernaculars of Hindustan, except perhaps by an inherent grace and strength which make it a sort of Tuscan among the Prakrits."
According to K.R. Norman, it is likely that the viharas in North India had separate collections of material, preserved in the local dialect. In the early period it is likely that no degree of translation was necessary in communicating this material to other areas. Around the time of Ashoka there had been more linguistic divergence, and an attempt was made to assemble all the material. It is possible that a language quite close to the Pali of the canon emerged as a result of this process as a compromise of the various dialects in which the earliest material had been preserved, and this language functioned as a lingua franca among Eastern Buddhists in India from then on. Following this period, the language underwent a small degree of Sanskritisation (i.e., MIA bamhana -> brahmana, tta -> tva in some cases).
Bhikkhu Bodhi, summarizing the current state of scholarship, states that the language is "closely related to the language (or, more likely, the various regional dialects) that the Buddha himself spoke." He goes on to write:
Scholars regard this language as a hybrid showing features of several Prakrit dialects used around the third century BCE, subjected to a partial process of Sanskritization. While the language is not identical with any the Buddha himself would have spoken, it belongs to the same broad linguistic family as those he might have used and originates from the same conceptual matrix. This language thus reflects the thought-world that the Buddha inherited from the wider Indian culture into which he was born, so that its words capture the subtle nuances of that thought-world.
According to A.K. Warder, the Pali language is a Prakrit language used in a region of western India. Warder associates Pali with the Indian realm (janapada) of Avanti, where the Sthavira sect was centered. Following the initial split in the Buddhist community, the Sthavira branch of Buddhism became influential in western and southern India, while the Mahāsāṃghika branch became influential in central and eastern India. Akira Hirakawa and Paul Groner also associate Pali with west India and the Sthavira sect, citing inscriptions at Girnar in Gujarat, India, which are linguistically closest to the Pali language.
បច្ចុប្បន្ននេះ មុខវិជ្ជាភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានបញ្ចូលក្នុងផ្នែកពុទ្ធសាសនា ដើម្បីអោយពុទ្ធសាសនិកជនមានភាពងាយស្រូលក្នុងការអានគម្ពីរ និងសូត្រនមស្សការជាប្រចាំរាល់ថ្ងៃ។ ក្រៅពីខាងផ្នែកសាសនា, អក្សរសាស្ត្រ កាលប្បវត្តិជាភាសាបាលី, ឯកសារខាងវិជ្ជាពេទ្យ និងអក្សរចារឹកមួយចំនួន គឺជាប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រយ៉ាងសំខាន់ផងដែរ ។ មជ្ឈមណ្ឌលរៀនភាសាបាលីដែលគួរអោយកត់សំគាល់ក្នុងពេលបច្ចុប្បន្ននេះ គឺមាននៅតែក្នុងពុទ្ធសាសនាថេរវាទ នៅប្រទេសអាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍មានដូចជា: ភូមា, ស្រីលង្កា, ថៃ, ឡាវ, និង កម្ពុជា។ ចាប់តាំងពីសតវត្យទី១៩, various societies for the revival of Pali studies in India have promoted awareness of the language and its literature, perhaps most notably the Maha Bodhi Society founded by Anagarika Dhammapala.
In Europe, the Pali Text Society has been a major force in promoting the study of Pali by Western scholars since its founding in 1881. Based in the United Kingdom, the society publishes romanized Pali editions, along with many English translations of these sources. In 1869, the first Pali Dictionary was published using the research of Robert Caesar Childers, one of the founding members of the Pali Text Society. It was the first Pali translated text in English and was published in 1872. Childers's dictionary later received the Volney Prize in 1876.
The Pali Text Society was in part founded to compensate for the very low level of funds allocated to Indology in late 19th-century England and the rest of the UK; incongruously, the citizens of the UK were not nearly so robust in Sanskrit and Prakrit language studies as Germany, Russia, and even Denmark. Without the inspiration of colonial holdings such as the former British occupation of Sri Lanka and Burma, institutions such as the Danish Royal Library have built up major collections of Pali manuscripts, and major traditions of Pali studies.
Virtually every word in Pāḷi has cognates in the other Prakritic Middle Indo-Aryan languages, e.g., the Jain Prakrits. The relationship to earlier Sanskrit (e.g., Vedic language) is less direct and more complicated. Historically, influence between Pali and Sanskrit has been felt in both directions. The Pali language's resemblance to Sanskrit is often exaggerated by comparing it to later Sanskrit compositions– which were written centuries after Sanskrit ceased to be a living language, and are influenced by developments in Middle Indic, including the direct borrowing of a portion of the Middle Indic lexicon; whereas, a good deal of later Pali technical terminology has been borrowed from the vocabulary of equivalent disciplines in Sanskrit, either directly or with certain phonological adaptations.
Post-canonical Pali also possesses a few loan-words from local languages where Pali was used (e.g. Sri Lankans adding Sinhalese words to Pali). These usages differentiate the Pali found in the Suttapiṭaka from later compositions such as the Pali commentaries on the canon and folklore (e.g., the stories of the Jātaka commentaries), and comparative study (and dating) of texts on the basis of such loan-words is now a specialized field unto itself.
Pali was not exclusively used to convey the teachings of the Buddha, as can be deduced from the existence of a number of secular texts, such as books of medical science/instruction, in Pali. However, scholarly interest in the language has been focused upon religious and philosophical literature, because of the unique window it opens on one phase in the development of Buddhism.
Emic views of Paliកែប្រែ
Although Sanskrit was said in the Brahmanical tradition to be the unchanging language spoken by the gods, in which each word had an inherent significance, this view of language was not shared in the early Buddhist tradition,[which?] in which words were only conventional and mutable signs. Neither the Buddha nor his early followers shared the Brahmins' reverence for the Vedic language or its sacred texts. This view of language naturally extended to Pali, and may have contributed to its usage (as an approximation or standardization of local Middle Indic dialects) in place of Sanskrit. However, by the time of the compilation of the Pali commentaries (4th or 5th century), Pali was regarded as the natural language, the root language of all beings.[នរណា?]
Comparable to Ancient Egyptian, Latin or Hebrew in the mystic traditions of the West, Pali recitations were often thought to have a supernatural power (which could be attributed to their meaning, the character of the reciter, or the qualities of the language itself), and in the early strata of Buddhist literature we can already see Pali dhāraṇīs used as charms, e.g. against the bite of snakes. Many people in Theravada cultures still believe that taking a vow in Pali has a special significance, and, as one example of the supernatural power assigned to chanting in the language, the recitation of the vows of Aṅgulimāla are believed to alleviate the pain of childbirth in Sri Lanka. In Thailand, the chanting of a portion of the Abhidhammapiṭaka is believed to be beneficial to the recently departed, and this ceremony routinely occupies as much as seven working days. Interestingly, there is nothing in the latter text that relates to this subject, and the origins of the custom are unclear.
With regard to its phonology, R.C. Childers compared Pali to Italian: "Like Italian, Pali is at once flowing and sonorous: it is a characteristic of both languages that nearly every word ends in a vowel, and that all harsh conjunctions are softened down by assimilation, elision, or crasis, while on the other hand both lend themselves easily to the expression of sublime and vigorous thought."
|ខ្ពស់||ិ ឬ ឥ [i]
ី ឬ ឦ [iː]
|ុ ឬ ឧ [u]
ូ ឬ ឩ [uː]
|មធ្យម||េ ឬ ឯ [e], [eː]||ៈ ឬ អ [ɐ]||ោ ឬ ឱ [o], [oː]|
|ទាប||ា ឬ អា [aː]|
Long and short vowels are only contrastive in open syllables; in closed syllables, all vowels are always short. Short and long e and o are in complementary distribution: the short variants occur only in closed syllables, the long variants occur only in open syllables. Short and long e and o are therefore not distinct phonemes.
A sound called anusvāra (Skt.; Pali: nigghahita), represented by the letter ṁ (ISO 15919) or ṃ (ALA-LC) in romanization, and by a raised dot in most traditional alphabets, originally marked the fact that the preceding vowel was nasalized. That is, aṁ, iṁ and uṁ represented [ã], [ĩ] and [ũ]. In many traditional pronunciations, however, the anusvāra is pronounced more strongly, like the velar nasal [ŋ], so that these sounds are pronounced instead [ãŋ], [ĩŋ] and [ũŋ]. However pronounced, ṁ never follows a long vowel; ā, ī and ū are converted to the corresponding short vowels when ṁ is added to a stem ending in a long vowel, e.g. kathā + ṁ becomes kathaṁ, not *kathāṁ, devī + ṁ becomes deviṁ, not *devīṁ.
|ព្យញ្ជនវគ្គ||នាសិក||ម [m]||ន [n̪]||ណ [ɳ]||ញ [ɲ]||(ង [ŋ])|
|អឃោសៈ||សិថិល||ប [p]||ត [t̪]||ដ [ʈ]||ច [tʃ]||ក [k]|
|ធនិត||ផ [pʰ]||ថ [t̪ʰ]||ឋ [ʈʰ]||ឆ[tʃʰ]||ខ [kʰ]|
|ឃោសៈ||សិថិល||ព [b]||ទ [d̪]||ឌ [ɖ]||ជ [dʒ]||គ [ɡ]|
|ធនិត||ភ [bʱ]||ធ [d̪ʱ]||ឍ [ɖʱ]||ឈ [dʒʱ]||ឃ [ɡʱ]|
|ព្យញ្ជនអវគ្គ||ឧសុម||ស [s]||ហ [h]|
|សិថិល||វ [ʋ]||ល [l]||រ [ɻ]||(ឡ [ɭ])||យ [j]|
Of the sounds listed above only the three consonants in parentheses, ṅ, ḷ, and ḷh, are not distinct phonemes in Pali: ṅ only occurs before velar stops and ḷ, and ḷh are allophones of single ḍ, and ḍh between vowels.
ស្ទើរតែគ្រប់ពាក្យទាំងអស់ក្នុងភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានផ្លាស់ប្តូរទំរង់ដើម សម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងការតភ្ជាប់ពាក្យដើម្បីអោយមានន័យអាចស្តាប់បាន។ គេអាចយល់ន័យនៅក្នុងប្រយោគនីមួយៗដោយការសំគាល់លើពាក្យដែលត្រូវបានបំលែងទាំងនោះ ឧទាហរណ៍ ដូចជា គេអាចស្គាល់ប្រធាន ឬស្គាល់កាល តាមរយៈការបំបែកកិរិយាសព្ទក្នុងប្រយោគនោះ ជាដើម។
ភេទសម្រាប់សំគាល់នាមសព្ទនៅក្នុងវេយ្យាករណ៍បាលី មានបីគឺ បុំលិង្គ (ភេទប្រុស), ឥត្ថីលិង្គ (ភេទស្រី), នបុំសកលិង្គ (ភេទខ្ទើយ ឬភេទមិនប្រុសមិនស្រី)។ នាមនេះត្រូវបានបែងចែងជាពីរ គឺ ឯកវចនៈ និងពហុវចនៈ។ ម្យ៉ាងទៀត នៅពេលប្រើជាប្រយោគមួយៗ នាមសព្ទនេះត្រូវបានបំបែកដើម្បីបញ្ជាក់ន័យអោយប្រធាន ឬកម្មបទ ដើម្បីអោយមានសេចក្តីស្តាប់បាន ដែលគេហៅថាវិភត្តិ។ វិភត្តិនេះត្រូវបានចែកជា៨ប្រភេទគឺ បឋមា(ប្រធាន), ទុតិយា(កម្មបទ),តតិយា(អកម្ម,ធ្នាក់), ចតុត្ថី(កម្មបទប្រយោល), បញ្ចមី(ទំរង់បែងចែក), ឆដ្ឋី(បញ្ជាក់កម្មសិទ្ធ), សត្តមី(អាយតនិបាត), អាលបន(សម្ពោធន)។
អ-ការន្ត គឺជាស្រៈទីបំផុតមួយនៃនាមសព្ទដែលប្រព្រឹត្តទៅក្នុងបុំលិង្គ (ភេទប្រុស) និង នបុំសកលិង្គ (ភេទខ្ទើយ)។ គេសំគាល់"អ-ការន្ត" បានដោយពាក្យមាន"អ" (ៈ)នៅខាងចុង មានដូចជា បុរិស(បុ.រិ.សៈ), លោក(លោកៈ), ធម្ម(ធម្មៈ)ជាដើម។ នាមសព្ទដែលជាភេទប្រុស និងភេទខ្ទើយនេះ មានលក្ខណៈខុសគ្នាតែនៅក្នុងសព្វនាម, អាលបនៈ, និងកម្មបទប៉ុណ្ណោះ។
|បុំលិង្គ (លោក "លោក")||នបុំសកលិង្គ (យាន "រទេះសេះកង់៤")|
|បញ្ចមីAblative||លោកា (លោកម្ហា, លោកស្មា; លោកទោ)||យានា (យានម្ហា, យានស្មា; យានទោ)|
|ចតុត្ថី(កម្មបទប្រយោល)||លោកស្ស (លោកាយ)||លោកានំ||យានស្ស (យានាយ)||យានានំ|
|សត្តមីLocative||លោកេ (លោកស្មឹ)||លោកេសុ||យានេ (យានស្មឹ)||យានេសុ|
នាមដែលបញ្ចប់ដោយ "អា" (ា) ភាគច្រើនជាឥត្ថីលិង្គ។
|ឥត្ថីលិង្គ (កថា "ពំនោល")|
ឥ-ការន្ត និង ឧ-ការន្តកែប្រែ
ឥ-ការន្ត និង ឧ-ការន្ត ភាគច្រើនជាបុំលិង្គ(ភេទប្រុស) ឬ នបុំសកលិង្គ(ភេទមិនប្រុស មិនស្រី)។ នាមដែលបំបែកក្នុងទំរង់ (ភេទ) ទាំងពីរនេះខុសគ្នាតែសព្វនាម និងកម្មបទ។ ចំណែកឯអាលបនៈដូចគ្នាទៅនឹងសព្វនាម។
|បុំលិង្គ (ឥសិ- "ឥសី")||នបុំសកលិង្គ (អគ្គិ- "ភ្លើង")|
|បឋមា(សព្វនាម)||ឥសិ||ឥសយោ, ឥសី||អគ្គិ, អគ្គឹ||អគ្គី, អគ្គីនិ|
|តតិយា(អកម្ម)||ឥសិនា||ឥសិហិ, ឥសីហិ||អគ្គិនា||អគ្គិហិ, អគ្គីហិ|
|បញ្ចមីAblative||ឥសិនា, ឥសិទោ||អគ្គិនា, អគ្គិទោ|
|ចតុត្ថី||ឥសិនោ||ឥសិនំ, ឥសីនំ||អគ្គិនោ||អគ្គិនំ, អគ្គីនំ|
|ឆដ្ឋី(កម្មសិទ្ធ)||ឥសិស្ស, ឥសិនោ||អគ្គិស្ស, អគ្គិនោ|
|សត្តមីLocative||ឥសិស្មឹ||ឥសិសុ, ឥសីសុ||អគ្គិស្មឹ||អគ្គិសុ, អគ្គីសុ|
|បុំលិង្គ (ភិក្ខុ- "អ្នកបួស")||នបុំសកលិង្គ (ចក្ខុ- "ភ្នែក")|
|បឋមា(សព្វនាម)||ភិក្ខុ||ភិក្ខវោ, ភិក្ខូ||ចក្ខុ, ចក្ខុំ||ចក្ខូនិ|
|ឆដ្ឋីGenitive||ភិក្ខុស្ស, ភិក្ខុនោ||ភិក្ខូនំ, ភិក្ខុនំ្ន||ចក្ខុស្ស, ចក្ខុនោ||ចក្ខូនំ, ចក្ខុន្នំ|
- មនោបុព្វង្គមា ធម្មា , មនោសេដ្ឋា មនោមយា;
- មនសា ចេ បទុដ្ឋេន , ភាសតិ វា ករោតិ វា ,
- តតោ នំ ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ , ចក្កំវ វហតោ បទំ។
- មនោ = ចិត្ត, បុព្វ=មុន, គមា=ទៅ, ធម្មា=ធម៌;
- សេដ្ឋ= ប្រសើរបំផុត, មយា=ធ្វើ(សម្រេច);
- មនសា=ចិត្ត, ចេ= បើ, បទុដ្ឋេន=គឺទោសប្រទូស្ត, ភាសតិ=និយាយ, វា=ក្តី, ករោតិ=ធ្វើ;
- តតោ នំ=ព្រោះអំពើនោះ, ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ= ទុក្ខតាម, ចក្ក=កង់(កាំ), វហតោ=នាំទៅ, បទ=ស្នាមជើង
- មនោបុព្វង្គមា ធម្មា, មនោសេដ្ឋា មនោមយា;
- ធម៌ទាំងឡាយមានចិត្តជាធំ, មានចិត្តប្រសើរបំផុត សម្រេចមកពីចិត្ត
- មនសា ចេ បទុដ្ឋេន, ភាសតិ វា ករោតិ វា,
- បើបុគ្គលមានចិត្តត្រូវទោសប្រទូស្តរ៉ាយហើយ, ទោះបីនិយាយក្តី ធ្វើក្តី (ក៏អាក្រក់ដែរ)
- តតោ នំ ទុក្ខមន្វេតិ, ចក្កំវ វហតោ បទំ.
- ព្រោះអំពើអាក្រក់នោះឯង, សេចក្តីទុក្ខរមែងដេញជាប់តាមក្រោយបុគ្គលនោះដូចកង់រទេះវិលតាមស្នាមជើងគោដែលអូសនឹមរទេះនោះ។
The most archaic of the Middle Indo-Aryan languages are the inscriptional Aśokan Prakrit on the one hand and បាលី and អឌ្ឍមគធី on the other, both literary languages.
The Indo-Aryan languages are commonly assigned to three major groups - Old, Middle and New Indo-Aryan -, a linguistic and not strictly chronological classification as the MIA languages are not younger than ('Classical') Sanskrit. And a number of their morphophonological and lexical features betray the fact that they are not direct continuations of Ṛgvedic Sanskrit, the main base of 'Classical' Sanskrit; rather they descend from dialects which, despite many similarities, were different from Ṛgvedic and in some regards even more archaic.
MIA languages, though individually distinct, share features of phonology and morphology which characterize them as parallel descendants of Old Indo-Aryan. Various sound changes are typical of the MIA phonology:
(1) The vocalic liquids 'ṛ' and 'ḷ' are replaced by 'a', 'i' or 'u'; (2) the diphthongs 'ai' and 'au' are monophthongized to 'e' and 'o'; (3) long vowels before two or more consonants are shortened; (4) the three sibilants of OIA are reduced to one, either 'ś' or 's'; (5) the often complex consonant clusters of OIA are reduced to more readily pronounceable forms, either by assimilation or by splitting; (6) single intervocalic stops are progressively weakened; (7) dentals are palatalized by a following '-y-'; (8) all final consonants except '-ṃ' are dropped unless they are retained in 'sandhi' junctions.
The most conspicuous features of the morphological system of these languages are: loss of the dual; thematicization of consonantal stems; merger of the f. 'i-/u-' and 'ī-/ū-' in one 'ī-/ū-' inflexion, elimination of the dative, whose functions are taken over by the genitive, simultaneous use of different case-endings in one paradigm; employment of 'mahyaṃ' and 'tubhyaṃ' as genitives and 'me' and 'te' as instrumentals; gradual disappearance of the middle voice; coexistence of historical and new verbal forms based on the present stem; and use of active endings for the passive. In the vocabulary, the MIA languages are mostly dependent on Old Indo-Aryan, with addition of a few so-called 'deśī' words of (often) uncertain origin.
Although Pali cannot be considered a direct descendant of either Classical Sanskrit or of the older Vedic dialect[សង្ស័យ ], the languages are obviously very closely related and the common characteristics of Pali and Sanskrit were always easily recognized by those in India who were familiar with both. Indeed, a very large proportion of Pali and Sanskrit word-stems are identical in form, differing only in details of inflection.
The connections were sufficiently well-known that technical terms from Sanskrit were easily converted into Pali by a set of conventional phonological transformations. These transformations mimicked a subset of the phonological developments that had occurred in Proto-Pali. Because of the prevalence of these transformations, it is not always possible to tell whether a given Pali word is a part of the old Prakrit lexicon, or a transformed borrowing from Sanskrit. The existence of a Sanskrit word regularly corresponding to a Pali word is not always secure evidence of the Pali etymology, since, in some cases, artificial Sanskrit words were created by back-formation from Prakrit words.
The following phonological processes are not intended as an exhaustive description of the historical changes which produced Pali from its Old Indic ancestor, but rather are a summary of the most common phonological equations between Sanskrit and Pali, with no claim to completeness.
ស្រៈ និង ស្រៈផ្សំកែប្រែ
- Sanskrit ai and au always monophthongize to Pali e and o, respectively
- Examples: maitrī → mettā, auṣadha → osadha
- Sanskrit aya and ava likewise often reduce to Pali e and o
- Examples: dhārayati → dhāreti, avatāra → otāra, bhavati → hoti
- Sanskrit avi becomes Pali e (i.e. avi → ai → e)
- Example: sthavira → thera
- Sanskrit ṛ appears in Pali as a, i or u, often agreeing with the vowel in the following syllable. ṛ also sometimes becomes u after labial consonants.
- Examples: kṛta → kata, tṛṣṇa → taṇha, smṛti → sati, ṛṣi → isi, dṛṣṭi → diṭṭhi, ṛddhi → iddhi, ṛju → uju, spṛṣṭa → phuṭṭha, vṛddha → vuddha
- Sanskrit long vowels are shortened before a sequence of two following consonants.
- Examples: kṣānti → khanti, rājya → rajja, īśvara → issara, tīrṇa → tiṇṇa, pūrva → pubba
- The Sanskrit sibilants ś, ṣ, and s merge together as Pali s
- Examples: śaraṇa → saraṇa, doṣa → dosa
- The Sanskrit stops ḍ and ḍh become ḷ and ḷh between vowels (as in Vedic)
- Example: cakravāḍa → cakkavāḷa, virūḍha → virūḷha
- Many assimilations of one consonant to a neighboring consonant occurred in the development of Pali, producing a large number of geminate (double) consonants. Since aspiration of a geminate consonant is only phonetically detectable on the last consonant of a cluster, geminate kh, gh, ch, jh, ṭh, ḍh, th, dh, ph and bh appear as kkh, ggh, cch, jjh, ṭṭh, ḍḍh, tth, ddh, pph and bbh, not as khkh, ghgh etc.
- When assimilation would produce a geminate consonant (or a sequence of unaspirated stop+aspirated stop) at the beginning of a word, the initial geminate is simplified to a single consonant.
- Examples: prāṇa → pāṇa (not ppāṇa), sthavira → thera (not tthera), dhyāna → jhāna (not jjhāna), jñāti → ñāti (not ññāti)
- When assimilation would produce a sequence of three consonants in the middle of a word, geminates are simplified until there are only two consonants in sequence.
- Examples: uttrāsa → uttāsa (not utttāsa), mantra → manta (not mantta), indra → inda (not indda), vandhya → vañjha (not vañjjha)
- The sequence vv resulting from assimilation changes to bb
- Example: sarva → savva → sabba, pravrajati → pavvajati → pabbajati, divya → divva → dibba
Total assimilation, where one sound becomes identical to a neighboring sound, is of two types: progressive, where the assimilated sound becomes identical to the following sound; and regressive, where it becomes identical to the preceding sound.
- Internal visarga assimilates to a following voiceless stop or sibilant
- Examples: duḥkṛta → dukkata, duḥkha → dukkha, duḥprajña → duppañña, niḥkrodha (=niṣkrodha) → nikkodha, niḥpakva (=niṣpakva) → nippakka, niḥśoka → nissoka, niḥsattva → nissatta
- In a sequence of two dissimilar Sanskrit stops, the first stop assimilates to the second stop
- Examples: vimukti → vimutti, dugdha → duddha, utpāda → uppāda, pudgala → puggala, udghoṣa → ugghosa, adbhuta → abbhuta, śabda → sadda
- In a sequence of two dissimilar nasals, the first nasal assimilates to the second nasal
- Example: unmatta → ummatta, pradyumna → pajjunna
- j assimilates to a following ñ (i.e., jñ becomes ññ)
- Examples: prajñā → paññā, jñāti → ñāti
- The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a following stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
- Examples: mārga → magga, karma → kamma, varṣa → vassa, kalpa → kappa, sarva → savva → sabba
- r assimilates to a following l
- Examples: durlabha → dullabha, nirlopa → nillopa
- d sometimes assimilates to a following v, producing vv → bb
- Examples: udvigna → uvvigga → ubbigga, dvādaśa → bārasa (beside dvādasa)
- t and d may assimilate to a following s or y when a morpheme boundary intervenes
- Examples: ut+sava → ussava, ud+yāna → uyyāna
- Nasals sometimes assimilate to a preceding stop (in other cases epenthesis occurs; see below)
- Examples: agni → aggi, ātman → atta, prāpnoti → pappoti, śaknoti → sakkoti
- m assimilates to an initial sibilant
- Examples: smarati → sarati, smṛti → sati
- Nasals assimilate to a preceding stop+sibilant cluster, which then develops in the same way as such clusters without following nasals (see Partial assimilations below)
- Examples: tīkṣṇa → tikṣa → tikkha, lakṣmī → lakṣī →lakkhī
- The Sanskrit liquid consonants r and l assimilate to a preceding stop, nasal, sibilant, or v
- Examples: prāṇa → pāṇa, grāma → gāma, śrāvaka → sāvaka, agra → agga, indra → inda, pravrajati → pavvajati → pabbajati, aśru → assu
- y assimilates to preceding non-dental/retroflex stops or nasals
- Examples: cyavati → cavati, jyotiṣ → joti, rājya → rajja, matsya → macchya → maccha, lapsyate → lacchyate → lacchati, abhyāgata → abbhāgata, ākhyāti → akkhāti, saṁkhyā → saṅkhā (but also saṅkhyā), ramya → ramma
- y assimilates to preceding non-initial v, producing vv → bb
- Example: divya → divva → dibba, veditavya → veditavva → veditabba, bhāvya → bhavva → bhabba
- y and v assimilate to any preceding sibilant, producing ss
- Examples: paśyati → passati, śyena → sena, aśva → assa, īśvara → issara, kariṣyati → karissati, tasya → tassa, svāmin → sāmī
- v sometimes assimilates to a preceding stop
- Examples: pakva → pakka, catvāri → cattāri, sattva → satta, dhvaja → dhaja
Partial and mutual assimilationកែប្រែ
- Sanskrit sibilants before a stop assimilate to that stop, and if that stop is not already aspirated, it becomes aspirated; e.g. śc, st, ṣṭ and sp become cch, tth, ṭṭh and pph
- Examples: paścāt → pacchā, asti → atthi, stava → thava, śreṣṭha → seṭṭha, aṣṭa → aṭṭha, sparśa → phassa
- In sibilant-stop-liquid sequences, the liquid is assimilated to the preceding consonant, and the cluster behaves like sibilant-stop sequences; e.g. str and ṣṭr become tth and ṭṭh
- Examples: śāstra → śasta → sattha, rāṣṭra → raṣṭa → raṭṭha
- t and p become c before s, and the sibilant assimilates to the preceding sound as an aspirate (i.e., the sequences ts and ps become cch)
- Examples: vatsa → vaccha, apsaras → accharā
- A sibilant assimilates to a preceding k as an aspirate (i.e., the sequence kṣ becomes kkh)
- Examples: bhikṣu → bhikkhu, kṣānti → khanti
- Any dental or retroflex stop or nasal followed by y converts to the corresponding palatal sound, and the y assimilates to this new consonant, i.e. ty, thy, dy, dhy, ny become cc, cch, jj, jjh, ññ; likewise ṇy becomes ññ. Nasals preceding a stop that becomes palatal share this change.
- Examples: tyajati → cyajati → cajati, satya → sacya → sacca, mithyā → michyā → micchā, vidyā → vijyā → vijjā, madhya → majhya → majjha, anya → añya → añña, puṇya → puñya → puñña, vandhya → vañjhya → vañjjha → vañjha
- The sequence mr becomes mb, via the epenthesis of a stop between the nasal and liquid, followed by assimilation of the liquid to the stop and subsequent simplification of the resulting geminate.
- Examples: āmra → ambra → amba, tāmra → tamba
An epenthetic vowel is sometimes inserted between certain consonant-sequences. As with ṛ, the vowel may be a, i, or u, depending on the influence of a neighboring consonant or of the vowel in the following syllable. i is often found near i, y, or palatal consonants; u is found near u, v, or labial consonants.
- Sequences of stop + nasal are sometimes separated by a or u
- Example: ratna → ratana, padma → paduma (u influenced by labial m)
- The sequence sn may become sin initially
- Examples: snāna → sināna, sneha → sineha
- i may be inserted between a consonant and l
- Examples: kleśa → kilesa, glāna → gilāna, mlāyati → milāyati, ślāghati → silāghati
- An epenthetic vowel may be inserted between an initial sibilant and r
- Example: śrī → sirī
- The sequence ry generally becomes riy (i influenced by following y), but is still treated as a two-consonant sequence for the purposes of vowel-shortening
- Example: ārya → arya → ariya, sūrya → surya → suriya, vīrya → virya → viriya
- a or i is inserted between r and h
- Example: arhati → arahati, garhā → garahā, barhiṣ → barihisa
- There is sporadic epenthesis between other consonant sequences
- Examples: caitya → cetiya (not cecca), vajra → vajira (not vajja)
- Any Sanskrit sibilant before a nasal becomes a sequence of nasal followed by h, i.e. ṣṇ, sn and sm become ṇh, nh, and mh
- Examples: tṛṣṇa → taṇha, uṣṇīṣa → uṇhīsa, asmi → amhi
- The sequence śn becomes ñh, due to assimilation of the n to the preceding palatal sibilant
- Example: praśna → praśña → pañha
- The sequences hy and hv undergo metathesis
- Examples: jihvā → jivhā, gṛhya → gayha, guhya → guyha
- h undergoes metathesis with a following nasal
- Example: gṛhṇāti → gaṇhāti
- y is geminated between e and a vowel
- Examples: śreyas → seyya, Maitreya → Metteyya
- Voiced aspirates such as bh and gh on rare occasions become h
- Examples: bhavati → hoti, -ebhiṣ → -ehi, laghu → lahu
- Dental and retroflex sounds sporadically change into one another
- Examples: jñāna → ñāṇa (not ñāna), dahati → ḍahati (beside Pali dahati) nīḍa → nīla (not nīḷa), sthāna → ṭhāna (not thāna), duḥkṛta → dukkaṭa (beside Pali dukkata)
There are several notable exceptions to the rules above; many of them are common Prakrit words rather than borrowings from Sanskrit.
- ārya → ayya (beside ariya)
- guru → garu (adj.) (beside guru (n.))
- puruṣa → purisa (not purusa)
- vṛkṣa → rukṣa → rukkha (not vakkha)
ស្តេច អសោក (Ashoka) បានសាងសង់សរសរស្តំ (pillar) មួយចំនួន ព្រមទាំងបានបញ្ញត្ត (ហាម) សរសេរភាសាប្រាក្រឹតតិចបំផុត ៣ តំបន់ ជាអក្សរព្រាហ្មណ៍, ដែលភាសាទាំងនោះស្រដៀងនឹងភាសាបាលី។ តាមការស្រាវជ្រាវ ផ្អែកលើការសាកសួរ និង សង្កេត, គេជឿថា ព្រះត្រៃបិដកបាលី ត្រូវបានសរសេរជាភាសាសីហឡ (Sinhala, Sinhalese) មុនគេ ។ នៅក្នុងគម្ពីរមហាវង្ស (Mahavamsa) (កាលប្បវត្តិនៃប្រទេសស្រីលង្កា), កំឡុងពេលមានទុរ្ភិក្ស (កង្វះអាហារ) ក្នុងប្រទេស, ព្រះសង្ឃជាសាវ័កនៃព្រះពុទ្ធ បានចារព្រះត្រៃបិដក ក្នុងកំឡុងរាជ នៃស្តេច ដ្តគាមនី អភយៈ (Vattagamani Abhaya) ក្នុងពុទ្ធសករាជ ៤៤៤ (១០០ ឆ្នាំ មុនគ្រិស្តសករាជ) ។ ការសរសេរបាលី ត្រូវបានថែរក្សាក្នុងប្រព័ន្ធអក្សរសកល តែវាត្រូវបានបញ្ជាក់ពីតម្លៃជាក់ស្តែងគួរឲ្យភ្ញាក់ផ្អើលនៃអក្សរដទៃ ៗ ។
ប្រទេសកាន់តាមពុទ្ធសាសនានិកាយថេរវាទនីមួយៗ បានកត់ត្រាសំនៀងអត្ថបទបាលីក្នុងព្រះត្រ័យបិដកដោយប្រើអក្សរនៃជាតិរបស់ខ្លួន ដែលធ្វើឲ្យមានសំនឿងអាន ខុសប្លែកពីគ្នាខ្លះៗ ។ នៅប្រទេសកម្ពុជា អត្ថបទបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរខ្មែរ, ប្រទេសស្រីលង្កា ប្រើអក្សរសីហឡ, នៅប្រទេសភូមា (មីយ៉ាន់ម៉ា) ប្រើអក្សរមន, នៅប្រទេសថៃ ប្រើអក្សរថៃ(ឆ្នាំ ១៨៩៣), នៅប្រទេសឡាវ ប្រើអក្សរឡាវ, នៅប្រទេសឥណ្ឌា ប្រើទេវនាគរី(Devanāgarī)។
ចាប់តាំងពីសតវត្យទី ១៩, ភាសាបាលីត្រូវបានសរសេរជាអក្សរឡាតាំង (Latin) ទុកជាគោលសម្រាប់ផ្ទៀងផ្ទាត់ និង សម្រាប់អ្នកសិក្សាស្រាវជ្រាវ ទូទៅ ។ An alternate scheme devised by Frans Velthuis allows for typing without diacritics using plain ASCII methods, but is arguably less readable than the standard Rhys Davids system, which uses diacritical marks.
អក្ខរៈសម្រាប់ប្រើក្នុងភាសាបាលីមាន៤១តួ គឺ សរៈ(ស្រៈ) ៨ តួ និង ព្យញ្ជនៈ ៣៣ តួ
- ជាអក្សរឡាតំាង a-ā-i-ī-u-ū-e-o-ṃ-k-kh-g-gh-ṅ-c-ch-j-jh-ñ-ṭ-ṭh-ḍ-ḍh-ṇ-t-th-d-dh-n-p-ph-b-bh-m-y-r-l-ḷ-v-s-h
- ស្រៈនិស្ស័យ= -ា-ិ-ី-ុ-ូ-េ-ោ
- ស្រៈពេញតួ= អ-អា-ឥ-ឦ-ឧ-ឩ-ឯ-ឱ
- ព្យញ្ជនៈ= ក-ខ-គ-ឃ-ង-ច-ឆ-ជ-ឈ-ញ-ដ-ឋ-ឌ-ឍ-ណ-ត-ថ-ទ-ធ-ន-ប-ផ-ព-ភ-ម-យ-រ-ល-វ-ស-ហ-ឡ-ំ
There are several fonts to use for Pali transliteration. However, older ASCII fonts such as Leedsbit PaliTranslit, Times_Norman, Times_CSX+, Skt Times, Vri RomanPali CN/CB etc., are not recommendable since they are not compatible with one another and technically out of date. On the contrary, fonts based on the Unicode standard are recommended because Unicode seems to be the future for all fonts and also because they are easily portable to one another.
However, not all Unicode fonts contain the necessary characters. To properly display all the diacritic marks used for romanized Pali (or for that matter, Sanskrit), a Unicode font must contain the following character ranges:
- Basic Latin: U+0000 – U+007F
- Latin-1 Supplement: U+0080 – U+00FF
- Latin Extended-A: U+0100 – U+017F
- Latin Extended-B: U+0180 – U+024F
- Latin Extended Additional: U+1E00 – U+1EFF
Some Unicode fonts freely available for typesetting Romanized Pali are as follows:
- Google's Chrome OS has 3 font families which can be downloaded from Google Font Directory. Even better, they can be used as embedded in websites to show the Pali text that users can view without having the fonts on their machines.
- Tinos is a serif font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Arimo is a sans-serif font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Cousine is a monospaced font. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- The Pali Text Society recommends VU-Times and Gandhari Unicode for Windows and Linux Computers.
- The Tibetan & Himalayan Digital Library recommends Times Ext Roman, and provides links to several Unicode diacritic Windows and Mac fonts usable for typing Pali together with ratings and installation instructions. It also provides macros for typing diacritics in OpenOffice and MS Office.
- SIL: International provides Charis SIL and Charis SIL Compact, Doulos SIL, Gentium, Gentium Basic, Gentium Book Basic fonts. Of them, Charis SIL, Gentium Basic and Gentium Book Basic have all 4 styles (regular, italic, bold, bold-italic); so can provide publication quality typesetting.
- Libertine Openfont Project provides the Linux Libertine font (4 serif styles and many Opentype features) and Linux Biolinum (4 sans-serif styles) at the Sourceforge.
- Junicode (short for Junius-Unicode) is a Unicode font for medievalists, but it provides all diacritics for typing Pali. It has 4 styles and some Opentype features such as Old Style for numerals.
- Thryomanes includes all the Roman-alphabet characters available in Unicode along with a subset of the most commonly used Greek and Cyrillic characters, and is available in normal, italic, bold, and bold italic.
- GUST (Polish TeX User Group) provides Latin Modern and TeX Gyre fonts. Each font has 4 styles, with the former finding most acceptance among the LaTeX users while the latter is a relatively new family. Of the latter, each typeface in the following families has nearly 1250 glyphs and is available in PostScript, TeX and OpenType formats.
- The TeX Gyre Adventor family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Gothic L family. The original font, ITC Avant Garde Gothic, was designed by Herb Lubalin and Tom Carnase in 1970.
- The TeX Gyre Bonum family of serif fonts is based on the URW Bookman L family. The original font, Bookman or Bookman Old Style, was designed by Alexander Phemister in 1860.
- The TeX Gyre Chorus is a font based on the URW Chancery L Medium Italic font. The original, ITC Zapf Chancery, was designed in 1979 by Hermann Zapf.
- The TeX Gyre Cursor family of monospace serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Mono L family. The original font, Courier, was designed by Howard G. (Bud) Kettler in 1955.
- The TeX Gyre Heros family of sans serif fonts is based on the URW Nimbus Sans L family. The original font, Helvetica, was designed in 1957 by Max Miedinger.
- The TeX Gyre Pagella family of serif fonts is based on the URW Palladio L family. The original font, Palatino, was designed by Hermann Zapf in the 1940's.
- The TeX Gyre Schola family of serif fonts is based on the URW Century Schoolbook L family. The original font, Century Schoolbook, was designed by Morris Fuller Benton in 1919.
- The TeX Gyre Termes family of serif fonts is based on the Nimbus Roman No9 L family. The original font, Times Roman, was designed by Stanley Morison together with Starling Burgess and Victor Lardent.
- Google's Chrome OS has 3 font families which can be downloaded from Google Font Directory. Even better, they can be used as embedded in websites to show the Pali text that users can view without having the fonts on their machines.
- John Smith provides IndUni Opentype fonts, based upon URW++ fonts. Of them:
- IndUni-C is Courier-lookalike;
- IndUni-H is Helvetica-lookalike;
- IndUni-N is New Century Schoolbook-lookalike;
- IndUni-P is Palatino-lookalike;
- IndUni-T is Times-lookalike;
- IndUni-CMono is Courier-lookalike but monospaced;
- An English Buddhist monk titled Bhikkhu Pesala provides some Pali fonts he has designed himself. Of them:
- Akkhara is a derivative of Gentium with low profile accents, reduced line-spacing and high accents prevented from getting clipped. Maths symbols are the same width as figures. The additional arrows, symbols, and dingbats are designed to match the Caps height.Regular & Italic styles.
- Cankama is a Gothic, Black Letter script. Regular style only.
- Garava was designed for body text with a generous x-height and economical copyfit. It includes Small Caps, Bold Small Caps, and Heavy styles besides the usual four styles (regular, italic, bold, bold italic).
- Guru is another font family for body text with OpenType features. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Hattha is a hand-writing font. Regular, italic, and bold styles.
- Kabala is a distinctive Sans Serif typeface designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Lekhana is a Zapf Chancery clone, a flowing script that can be used for correspondence or body text. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Mandala is designed for display text or headings. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Pali is a clone of Hermann Zapf's Palatino. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- Odana is a calligraphic brush font suitable for headlines, titles, or short texts where a less formal appearance is wanted. Regular style only.
- Talapanna and Talapatta are clones of Goudy Bertham, with decorative gothic capitals and extra ligatures in the Private Use Area. These two are different only in decorative gothic capitals in the Private Use Area. Regular and bold styles.
- Veluvana is another brush calligraphic font but basic Greek glyphs are taken from Guru. Regular style only.
- Verajja is derived from Bitstream Vera. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- VerajjaPDA is a cut-down version of Verajja without symbols. For use on PDA devices. Regular, italic, bold and bold italic styles.
- He also provides some Pali keyboards for Windows XP.
- The font section of Alanwood's Unicode Resources have links to several general purpose fonts that can be used for Pali typing if they cover the character ranges above.
- John Smith provides IndUni Opentype fonts, based upon URW++ fonts. Of them:
Some of the latest fonts coming with Windows 7 can also be used to type transliterated Pali: Arial, Calibri, Cambria, Courier New, Microsoft Sans Serif, Segoe UI, Segoe UI Light, Segoe UI Semibold, Tahoma, and Times New Roman. And some of them have 4 styles each hence usable in professional typesetting: Arial, Calibri and Segoe UI are sans-serif fonts, Cambria and Times New Roman are serif fonts and Courier New is a monospace font.
The Velthuis scheme was originally developed in 1991 by Frans Velthuis for use with his "devnag" Devanāgarī font, designed for the TeX typesetting system. This system of representing Pali diacritical marks has been used in some websites and discussion lists. However, as the Web itself and email software slowly evolve towards the Unicode encoding standard, this system has become almost not necessary and obsolete.
|អក្សរខ្មែរ||អក្សរឡាតាំង||ASCII rendering||ឈ្មោះសំគាល់អក្សរ||លេខយូនីកូដ||ការផ្សំឃី(key)||HTML កូដ|
|ំ||ṃ||.m||m dot-under||U+1E43||Alt Gr+M||ṁ|
- Hazra, Kanai Lal. Pali Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study. D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 19.
- Students' Britannica India, .
- Oberlies, Thomas Pali: A Grammar of the Language of the Theravāda Tipitaka, Walter de Gruyter, 2001.
- Buddhist India, ch. 9 Retrieved 14 June 2010.
- Hazra, Kanai Lal. Pali Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study. D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 11.
- Hazra, Kanai Lal. Pali Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study. D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, pages 1-44.
- Hazra, Kanai Lal. Pali Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study. D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 29.
- Hazra, Kanai Lal. Pali Language and Literature; a systematic survey and historical study. D.K. Printworld Lrd., New Delhi, 1994, page 20.
- K.R. Norman, Pali Literature. Otto Harrassowitz, 1983, pages 1-7.
- Bhikkhu Bodhi, In the Buddha's Words. Wisdom Publications, 2005, page 10.
- Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 284
- Warder, A.K. Indian Buddhism. 2000. p. 284
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- Hirakawa, Akira. Groner, Paul. A History of Indian Buddhism: From Śākyamuni to Early Mahāyāna. 2007. p. 119
- David Kalupahana, Nagarjuna: The Philosophy of the Middle Way. SUNY Press, 1986, page 19. The author refers specifically to the thought of early Buddhism here.
- Dispeller of Delusion, Pali Text Society, volume II, pages 127f
- Robert Caesar Childers, A Dictionary of the Pali Language. Published by Trübner, 1875, pages xii-xiv. Republished by Asian Educational Services, 1993.
- Inscriptions of Asoka by Alexander Cunningham, Eugen Hultzsch. Calcutta: Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing. Calcutta: 1877
- See entries for "Pali" (written by K. R. Norman of the Pali Text Society) and "India--Buddhism" in The Concise Encyclopedia of Language and Religion, (Sawyer ed.) ISBN 0-08-043167-4
- Warder, A.K. (1991). Introduction to Pali (third edition ed.). Pali Text Society. ISBN 0860131971.CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
- de Silva, Lily (1994). Pali Primer (first edition ed.). Vipassana Research Institute Publications. ISBN 817414014X.CS1 maint: Extra text (link)
- Müller, Edward (1884,1995). Simplified Grammar of the Pali Language. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120611039. Check date values in:
- Gupta, K. M. (2006). Linguistic approach to meaning in Pali. New Delhi: Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 81-7574-170-8
- Müller, E. (2003). The Pali language: a simplified grammar. Trubner's collection of simplified grammars. London: Trubner. ISBN 1-84453-001-9
- Oberlies, T., & Pischel, R. (2001). Pāli: a grammar of the language of the Theravāda Tipiṭaka. Indian philology and South Asian studies, v. 3. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-016763-8
- Hazra, K. L. (1994). Pāli language and literature: a systematic survey and historical study. Emerging perceptions in Buddhist studies, no. 4-5. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld. ISBN 81-246-0004-X
- American National Standards Institute. (1979). American National Standard system for the romanization of Lao, Khmer, and Pali. New York: The Institute.
- Russell Webb (ed.) An Analysis of the Pali Canon, Buddhist Publication Society, Kandy; 1975, 1991 (see http://www.bps.lk/reference.asp)
- Soothill, W. E., & Hodous, L. (1937). A dictionary of Chinese Buddhist terms: with Sanskrit and English equivalents and a Sanskrit-Pali index. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
- Collins, Steven (2006). A Pali Grammar for Students. Silkworm Press.
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|ភាសាបាលី edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus|
- Glenn Wallis, Buddhavacana: A Pali Reader(Onalaska, Wash: Pariyatti Press, 2011).
- Pali Text Society, London. The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary. Chipstead, 1921-1925.
- Buddhist India by T.W. Rhys Davids, chapter IX, Language and Literature
- Pali at Ethnologue
- Pali Text Society
-  Free searchable online database of Pali literature, including the whole Canon
- http://pali.pratyeka.org/ Eisel Mazard's excellent website on Pali resources, including
- Complete Pāli Canon in romanized Pali and Sinhala, mostly also in English translation (metta.lk)
- Pāli Canon selection
- A guide to learning the Pāli language
- "Pali Primer" by Lily De Silva (requires installation of special fonts)
- "Pali Primer" by Lily De Silva (UTF-8 encoded)
- Free/Public-Domain Elementary Pāli Course--PDF format
- Free/Public-Domain Pāli Course--html format
- Free/Public-Domain Pāli Grammar (in PDF file)
- Free/Public-Domain Pāli Buddhist Dictionary (in PDF file)
- Comprehensive list of Pāli texts on Wikisource
- Buddhist Dictionary of Pali Proper Names, HTML version of the book by G.P. Malalasekera, 1937-8
- Pali Text Reader (software)
- Jain Scriptures
- Pali help at Help.com Wiki
- "A Course in the Pali Language," audio lectures by Bhikkhu Bodhi based on Gair & Karunatilleke (1998).
-  Pali Conjugation and Declension Tables for Students
-  Comprehensive Reference Table of Pali Literature